How are the structures of the upper extremity positioned?
The upper extremity is driven by what system?
What is the function of ligaments in the upper extremity?
Connect the chain
Ligaments create stability in the upper extremity
Ligaments do NOT create stability in the upper extremity
What is the osseous pivot of the upper extremity?
Sternoclavicular (S/C) Joint
What are the innervations to the musculature that suspends the scapula?
Commonly known as "knots" where is the trigger point type pain of the upper extremity most commonly found?
Between the Scapula & Upper Trapezius/Levator Scapula
According to A. Allen in Lephart & Fu chapter 10, what is the primary function of the shoulder?
"...to place the upper extremity in space so that the hand can perform its function."
Where do the scapular stabilizers attach?
Upper Extremity to the Spine
What is the function of the scapular stabilizers?
Keep the scapula back where it belongs
What are the 5 dynamic stabilizers of the scapula?
1.) Levator Scapulae
2.) Pectoralis Minor
4.) Serratus Anterior
What are the 2 compensatory stabilizers of the scapula?
What determines G/H efficiency?
What is the ratio of G/H jpint motion to S/C joint motion?
What joint in the upper extemity is the intersection of forces with little force dissipation options?
How many muscle bellies are there in the wrist?
What does the wrist function as in the upper extremity?
How do we use the whole upper extremity?
What gets affected if substitute patterns occur?
All areas of attachment
What is the first step in a substitute pattern?
What is the second step in a substitute pattern?
A contusion is an example of what type of injury?
Direct injury to the normal area
A leverage injury is an example of what type of injury?
Indirect injury to the normal area
What are the 4 postural signs of upper crossed syndrome?
1.) Rounded shoulders
2.) Forward Head Weight
3.) Elevated shoulders
4.) Winging scapulae
What is the cause of rounded shoulders in upper crossed syndrome?
What is the cause of forward head weight in upper crossed syndrome?
Kyphotic upper thoracic spine
What is the cause of elevated shoulders in upper crossed syndrome?
1.) Shortened Upper Trapezius/Levator Scapulae
2.) Weak Lower & Middle Trapezius
What is the cause of winging scapulae of upper crossed syndrome?
Weak Serratus Anterior
What are the 4 steps to healing & recovery?
1.) Chiropractic checks/protocols
2.) Safety, Stability, Muscle Testing
What are the 4 expected outcomes of rehabilitation?
1.) Decrease pain
2.) Increase motion
3.) Muscle balance
4.) Strength, power & endurance
Healing & recovery takes _____!
What are the 3 S's of chiropractic extremity management criteria?
What are 6 considerations when assessing safety of an area of injury or chief complaint?
4.) Underlying condition
5.) Pain tolerance
What are 3 considerations that affect the MOI?
1.) Forces involved
2.) Position of the Joint
3.) Time of Episode
What are 2 things that need to be considered when evaluating the position of the joint during the MOI?
1.) Closed pack or Open pack position
2.) Open or Closed kinetic chain
What are 3 ways to describe the time of the episode during the MOI?
3.) Long period of time
What is the first step in evaluating stability?
1.) Perform orthopedic evaluation of injured area or area or pain
What is the second step in evaluating stability?
2.) Determine the chiropractic implications for the positive orthopedic exams
Whether or not we adjust acute sprain/strains depends on what 2 things?
What does a grade III injury mean?
Torn all the way
Do we adjust grade III injuries?
Evaluation for subluxation & fixation is _____ driven.
What theory is used when evaluating for the presence of subluxation with chiropractic extremity management criteria?
Mechanoreceptor theory is based on which law?
Hilton's Law states: "The same trunks of nerves whose branches supply the groups of muscles moving a joint, furnish also a distribution of nerves to the skin over the insertion of the same muscles, and the interior of the joint receives its nerves from the same source."
Put simply, what is Hilton's Law basically saying?
The joints & the muscles acting on them have the same nerve supply
Sensations transmitted from the joint include _____ & _____.
Pain & Position
What is the principle behind Hilton's Law?
A nerve supplying a joint also contains axons innervating muscles that cross that joint and the skin overlying the articular attachments of those muscles