Flashcards in 13. Classical Psychoanalysis (Freud)*** Deck (65):
What years was Freud producing work?
Note - It wasn't until 1900 he started publishing himself - before that point he was publishing with Breuer.
What is considered the first psychoanalytic essay? What did it discuss?
"A Preliminary Communication" by (Freud and Breuer, 1893, p. 7)
They believed that if symptoms were traced to their origins, and the client was made aware of the meaning of the originating experience, feelings would be discharged in a cathartic way. This would cause the symptoms to disappear.
In which publication was Anna O. (Bertha Pappenheim) first mentioned?
Studies in Hysteria
Freud and Breuer, 1895
What was the difference between Breuer and Freud in their explanations of why feelings seem detached from people?
Freud - because the content and feelings of the pathogenic memory is too disturbing and in conflict with the individual
Breuer - memories were detached due to an altered state of consciousness on the part of the client
In what publication did Freud first outline the topographic model? Include the year.
The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 1900)
Describe the Topographic model.
Unconscious - containing unacceptable ideas and feelings
Preconscious - containing acceptable ideas and feelings that are capable of becoming conscious
Conscious - containing those ideas and feelings in awareness at any particular time
Cite (Freud, 1900).
What are the four main operations at work in a dream?
Condensation - the dream's tendency to combine several themes into one dream symbol. In this way the symbol can stand for several different thoughts, feelings, wishes, ideas.
Displacement - the dream's tricky transfer of high-impact emotionality onto unimportant material and an emotional cooling to hot material.
Representability or scenification (drama of the dream)
Secondary revision (how we make sense of the dream)
In short, what are dreams according to Freud?
The disguised fulfillment of conflictual wishes (Freud, 1900).
Explain latent vs. manifest dream content.
The latent dream thought is the true meaning of the dream, and its distorted form, the one which the dreamer experiences, is the manifest dream content.
In short, how does dream interpretation work?
▪Each aspect of the manifest dream content is isolated and associated to
▪Associations help expose the memories, thoughts, and feelings of the dreamer, as experienced through condensation, displacement, and symbolism
▪Eventually, the associations coalesce into the nodal latent dream thoughts
Freud's work on dreams led him to the later understanding of what?
How symptoms form (like slips of the tongue), which are through compromises between the unacceptable thought and feeling, and the defense against it.
Describe Freud's theory of infantile seductionism.
Neuroses are the result of premature introduction of sexuality into the experience of the child. The child’s innocence prevents expression of distress until after the child experiences his or her own sexuality via puberty. The experience of puberty allows these early memories to re-emerge as neurotic symptoms fueled by enormous pressure.
He realized he had an attraction to his own mother reflecting in 1897, and that so many patients couldn't have had premature sexual experiences, meaning they must have been early wishes and longings and not actual experiences.
For a case (maybe on a psychotherapy question), you think it would be helpful to use free association. Briefly explain what it is, and cite when Freud talked about it.
It is used to dismantle a defense.
"Act as though…you were a traveler sitting next to the window of a railway carriage and describing to someone inside the carriage the changing views you see outside"
(Freud, 1913, p. 135).
When does Freud first mention instinctual drive theory? What is important about it?
In "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" (Freud, 1905)
It influenced all subsequent theory development.
How does childhood sexuality find expression in adult life?
Through neuroses (disguised childhood sexuality) and perversions (undisguised childhood sexuality)
Compromises are made between drive and impulse. How could this be manifested?
One who is orally dependent or orally aggressive.
One who is anally expulsive or anal retentive.
When talking about the Oedipus Complex, you should you this citation:
Later on, Freud mentioned the concept of a negative Oedipus complex.
What is that, and what is the citation for this work?
In a positive oedipal complex, the boy still identifies with the father and the feelings of hostility eventually lead to masculinization. This is the positive Oedipal Complex.
For negative, the boy would develop girl-like behavior and an affectionate, feminine attitude toward the father because he desires the same-sex parent, and takes the opposite sex parent as the rival.
The state of a child's pregenital organizations will significantly impact the course of resolution of the Oedipal Complex.
A child with a strong oral fixation might have what types of issues?
What about a child with an anal fixation?
Sexually punctuated by domination and control.
How is the Oedipal complex resolved?
How did he explain this for women?
The notion of castration anxiety. The boy wishes to remove the threat of his father by castrating him, but his fears his father will do this to him that allows the conflict to end as he renounces his oedipal ambitions.
Penis envy in women.
When did Freud introduce the concept of the superego? What is an important component of this?
The ego-ideal is a an important component. It signifies the internalization of parental values and holds infantile sexuality in-check.
In what publication did Freud introduce his dual-instinct theory?
What does this mean?
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle" (Freud, 1920)
Aggression was given equal status with sexuality as a source of basic instinctual energy that drives mental processes.
What is the death instinct?
Savage destructiveness. In this way, he began to believe that repression was more than just socially imposed, it also helped save people from their own savagery.
Freud started to change some of his thoughts after the death drive came about. Which of his views changed?
Freud revised his earlier beliefs that no repression is ideal, but that repression must be modulated to allow some gratification while maintaining some impulses to stay repressed (people need to repress the savagery for the good of society).
When did Freud's drive conflict model come about?
What are Freud's 5 psychosexual stages of development?
Only Assholes Push Little Girls
Oral - 0-1.5
Anal - 1.5-3
Phallic (Oedipal stage here!) - 3-6 (Jung, 1913 suggested an Electra Complex)
Latency - 6-puberty, but that varies
Genital - (puberty - death)
Who suggested the Electra Complex? In what year?
What causes a fixation in the psychosocial stages?
Overgratification or overfrustration, which could cause the child to become fixed to the developmental issues of the stage.
What psychosexual stage did Freud believe depressed individuals were stuck in? Cite.
▪Depressed individuals suffer a disruption in the oral stage (Freud, 1917).
▪Being fixated at this stage fosters dependency (e.g., being held, cuddled, bathed, etc.) and results in emotional dependency that continues throughout adult life.
▪Self-esteem depends on other important people of the environment. When a significant loss occurs, the mourner’s self-esteem plummets.
What is "symbolic loss"?
What psychopathology does it largely pertain to?
What should you cite when talking about it?
A person may perceive rejection or reproach as symbolic of an earlier loss, which induces depression.
IMPORTANT: Early losses of loved ones can cause a proclivity to depression in adulthood (so if a question leaves room for it, you can mention one of the parents or caregivers died or left the home to explain the roots of MDD or PDD).
Likely a failure in this conflict
Libidinal desires for mother/father and fears of the
opposite sex, parent’s retribution
Fear causes child to repress libidinal desires and child
turns to identify with the same sex parent
Leads to a development in the superego
Example of Jane – absence of father or stable male
figure, Oedipal conflict was never resolved, thus Jane
over identifies with her mother and internalizes her
critical nature, therefore a harsh superego develops –
becomes a Complex
What are the distinguishing mental features of melancholia (Freud, 1917)?
▪ painful dejection
▪ no interest in the outside world
▪ loss of the capacity to love
▪ reduced activity
▪ low self-esteem
▪ delusional expectation of punishment
What is the difference between mourning and melancholia (Freud, 1917)?
Disturbance in self-regard is only in melancholia, not mourning. Otherwise it's the same.
What is the most remarkable characteristic of melancholia (Freud, 1917)?
It's tendency to change into mania.
What happens in mania according to Freud, 1917?
In mania the ego has recovered from object loss. This makes all of the anticathexis available, which the painful suffering of melancholia has drawn to itself from the ego and bound. The accumulation of cathexis which is at first bound and then, after the work of melancholia is finished, becomes free and makes mania possible must be linked with regression of the libido to narcissism.
Why do children introject significant objects (Freud, 1917)?
To maintain an internal representation of them.
In the face of perceived loss, the child experiences ambivalent feelings (anger/love) toward the object. Angry feelings are deemed unacceptable by the superego, so the ego turns those feelings toward the self and projects loving feelings onto the object in order to maintain a positive view of the object and reduce anxiety.
Anger turned inward leads to feelings of self-deprecation and profound loss of self-esteem.
In grief, the external world diminishes, but in depression the self feels diminished.
According to Freud, what is the central source of psychopathology?
What is Freud's Structural Theory?
Structural Theory: A press from the drives which seek expression elicit ego defenses in an attempt to repress, when the id derivatives become overwhelming or ego defenses fail so that a compromise cannot be reached, the previously repressed material surfaces into consciousness in a disguised form (symptoms/pathology).
The Ego and the Id - (Freud, 1923)
Why did Freud move to the structural theory?
The topographic model wasn't sufficient in explaining conflict. Defenses weren't conscious. Wishes, impulses, and defenses were all unconscious.
The unconscious, however, also seemed to contain guilt, self-accusations, and punishments for forbidden wishes. Freud realized this in part due to the case of Gloria.
The conflict became not just between the unconscious and conscious, but within the unconscious itself, giving birth to the structural model.
What are the components of the structural model?
Id - unstructured impulsive energies
Ego - regulatory functions that keep the impulses of the id under control
Superego - a set of moral values and self-critical attitudes, largely organized around parental attitudes
What is the difference between primary process and secondary process thinking?
Whereas the id represents an individual’s initial, primary process thinking that is based on the pleasure principle, the ego brings about secondary process thinking that is based upon the reality principle.
Freud wrote which book about anxiety?
Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety in 1926.
According to Freud, what is the function of anxiety?
He saw anxiety as a signal of impending danger and anticipated helplessness. He thought its function was to forewarn the person so that they could avoid the experience.
Thus, anxiety is used as a signal by the ego to warn that drive derivatives are threatening to break into awareness and if ego doesn’t employ strong enough defenses (e.g., repression) the drive will surface.
According to Freud, what are the three types of anxieties?
Reality based anxiety/realistic - there is something in the real world that is an immediate threat
Moral anxiety - fear or punishment by one's superego; threat comes from the internalized social world (e.g., parents, societal values of the superego)
Neurotic anxiety - fear of punishment or annihilation with or without a clear source of danger, repression can no longer hold id in check, anxiety comes from the ego (signal anxiety) it anticipates 4 dangers based on past experience
loss of the object (oral)
loss of the object’s love (anal)
body integrity/castration anxiety (genital mutilation) (phallic)
punishment from the superego (genital)
So when it comes to anxiety, what is it the ego's job to do?
To defend against anxiety that arises due to the id (drive conflict), ego (real life situations) and Superego (punishment).
What is the interpretation of Freud's neurotic anxiety based on transformational libido?
▪accumulated excitation transformed into anxiety
▪anxiety experienced is fear of id impulses breaking through
▪this is paired with helplessness from experience of birth trauma and therefore anxiety becomes a signal of threat to the ego
What is a compromise formation?
A symptom is a partial satisfaction of a repressed wish. Symptoms blend repressive mechanisms with symbolic satisfactions; for that reason Freud considered them compromise formations. Every symptom has some anxiety behind it.
What are the role of symptoms in the classical analytic theory of anxiety?
▪reduce the anxiety (in OCD, removes ego from danger)
▪anxiety = ego overwhelmed by influx of stimuli, too great to be mastered or discharged
▪stimuli = internal (id impulses) or external
▪over the course of development, ego acquires capacity to produce anxiety when danger arises and later in anticipation of danger
▪signal anxiety enables ego to inhibit id impulses in dangerous situations
What is the function of ego defenses in anxiety?
▪ego opposes emergence of id impulse because it sees emergence as a dangerous situation, therefore it produces anxiety to signal danger, at which time the ego uses defenses against id impulses
Explain Freud's view of anxiety.
(Use little Hans and the comps case of Sandy to explain)
▪ According to Freud’s psychosexual theory of development, Sandy likely suffered disruption in the oedipal stage, something Freud believed all humans must overcome to avoid neurosis, in which she wanted to possess her father, but feared retribution from her harsh mother for having this wish
▪ Freud would look at Sandy’s case much like he looked at the case of Little Hans (Freud 1909, 1926)
▪ Hans feared horses, which Freud saw as a displacement of actual fear of the fathers retribution, in contrast, sandy fears her harsh mother, because she secretly wished to possess her father, she then displaced her fear of her mother onto other things as manifest by her fear of airplanes landing on her house in childhood, this could have been seen as symbolization of the father penetrating her and mutilating her genitals in childhood, much like the phallic shaped airplane would destroy her house. In adulthood, her fear becomes more generalized fear of open spaces.
▪ This allows more unacceptable impulses such as anger to be directed at the displaced object, striking a compromise between the id and the superego (allowing some gratification of anger v. directing anger at a safer object, respectively).
▪ In Freud’s case, Hans fantasized about the horse falling and hurting himself because this was safer than wishing destruction on the father (Freud, 1926). In Sandy’s case, she is able to defend against the displaced object simply by avoiding it. This gives Sandy some sense of control as she likely felt helpless in her childhood when she was attacked by her mothers. An expression of anger was unacceptable in Sandy’s family.
▪ Thus, from his structural theory Freud would conclude that, as an adult, the anxiety Sandy experiences is due to her unconscious anger toward her mother. When this anger begins to surface, it causes the anxiety and panic symptoms, as the anger is deemed unacceptable and worthy of punishment by Sandy’s harsh superego. The ego is overwhelmed by the impulse and signals anxiety in order to muster defense against the impulse.
*What are primary defense mechanisms in anxiety according to Freud?
▪ bars id impulses from consciousness as well as its derivatives like emotions, memories, etc.
▪ repressed material continues to be charged with drive energy and constantly presses for satisfaction, ego maintains repression thru constant expenditure of psychic energy
Compromise Formation (Freud, 1923):
▪ mind in constant state of dynamic tension, drives constantly seek gratification, while ego opposes well enough to ward off displeasure (depression, anxiety) the consequence of tension leads to compromise
▪ Anxiety Disorder as a result of pathological compromise formation
▪ Waelder 1960 - anxiety is conflict between the ego and the id, no compromise is worked out in favor of one or the other, therefore dangerous impulses are repressed, repression is unsuccessful and impulse finds its way into consciousness thru displaced forms (symptoms of anxiety and depression)
*What are primary defense mechanisms in specific phobia according to Freud?
Displacement - from one external object to another (e.g. from feared father to feared animal)
Projection - from self to external object, from frightened impulse to frightened vehicular motion
*What are primary defense mechanisms in OCD/OCPD according to Freud?
Intellectualization - accepting the idea that one possesses anger, although expression of it is inhibited
Isolation - to isolate feelings from knowing, affective aspect of experience is kept out of conscious awareness
Undoing - UCS efforts to counterbalance some affect, usually guilt or shame with attitude or behavior that will magically erase it
Reaction Formation - turning an affect or behavior into its opposite so it’s less threatening, favored when hostile feelings and aggressive strivings are experienced as in danger of getting out of control
*What are primary defense mechanisms in PTSD according to Freud?
turning passive into active - may see rape victim have sexual affairs as an attempt to master and control sexual situation
What is a symptom a sign of?
It's a sign of, and substitute for, an instinctual satisfaction that not been satisfied. It is a consequence of repression.
Where does repression come from?
The ego when the ego refuses to associate itself with an instinctual cathexis that has been aroused in the id.
What is the seat of anxiety?
What defenses are often seen in an obsessional neurotic?
Ambivalence is also described as contributing greatly to the formation of obsessional neurosis for some unknown reason.
In obsessional neurotic cases, versus hysterical or normal ones, what motivational force tends to be stronger?
The motive force of defense is the castration complex, and what are being fended off are the trends of the Oedipus complex.
What are anxiety states regarded as?
A reproduction of the trauma of birth.
What are the five types of resistance noted?
1. Ego resistances, including repression resistance,
2. transference resistance,
3. and gain from illness,
4. id resistance (compulsion to repeat)
5. superego resistance (sense of guilt or need for punishment)
Distinguish pain vs. anxiety.
Pain is the actual reaction to loss of an object while anxiety is the reaction to the danger which the loss entails.
In what publication did Freud write about schizophrenia?
The Loss of Reality in Neurosis and Psychosis (Freud, 1924)
What is the conflict defense model, and who is it used for?
It was outlined to explain schizophrenia by Freud in 1924 in "The Loss of Reality in Neurosis and Psychosis."
▪Regression to primary narcissism happens because no effective ego defenses have developed, therefore there is no differentiation between the self and the world (detached from reality)
▪fantasies from the id are mistaken for reality
▪some kind of conflict arises and the ego is weak so the primitive defenses are attempted but not effective
▪thought is primitive, poor reality testing
▪regress to primary process thinking
▪arrested development at pre-oedipal stage before integrated ego development*
▪ego is overwhelmed by the impulses of the id
▪explains symptoms using the structural model*
▪result of conflict and defense, difference is qualitative
▪schizophrenic conflicts are more intense, require frequent use of primitive defenses frequently involving reality breaks
▪exact level of regression based on one or more trauma
▪the difference with neurosis lies in the depth of the regression
What is the deficiency model, and who is it used for?
It was outlined to explain schizophrenia by Freud in 1924 in "The Loss of Reality in Neurosis and Psychosis."
▪conflict initiates schizophrenia thru the process of withdrawal of libidinal investments from the real world rather than defensive process in other pathologies
▪withdrawn libido remains invested in fantasized objects
▪withdrawal reaches a state so profound as to constitute a break with reality and relationship with internal object representations and relationships in fantasy
▪collapse of psychological investment and profound withdrawal constitute schizophrenia
▪patient tries to recover and reinvest libido, but since there is a break with reality these efforts produce symptoms of schizophrenia
▪patient has reinvested interest in others through objects that are not part of the real world