13. Ventilation in Small Mammals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13. Ventilation in Small Mammals Deck (19):
1

LO1. define 5 causes of hypoxemia

1. ventilation - perfusion mismatch (most common)
2. low FiO2
3. hypoventilation
4. anatomic shunt
5. diffusion impairement

2

LO2. hypoxemia v. hypoxia

hypoxia - dec. oxygen in tissues
hypoxemia can lead to hypoxia

3

LO3. indications for controlled ventilation

hypoventilation
intra-thoracic surgery
intracranial disease
pt given neuromuscular blocking agents

4

LO4. physiologic effects of IPPV

- volutrauma or barotrauma
- decreased compliance over time
- dec. venous return -> dec. BP

5

LO5. classification of ventilators

1. power source (electric/gas)
2. major control variable (volume, pressure)
3. drive mechanism (dual circuit with belows usually)
4. cycling mechanism (most time cycled)
5. bellows configuration (ascending/descending)

6

minute ventilation

tidal volume x respiratory rate

7

expiration is _____ in small animals.

passive

8

low V/Q mismatch

physiologic shunt (atelectasis, GDV/extended abdomen) no gas exchange with normal blood flow

9

deadspace ventilation

no blood flow to alveolus

10

ventilation - perfusion mismatch usually ______ after anesthesia

resolves

11

Low FiO2 causes

- nitrous oxide doesn't need carrier gas (can forget to add O2)
- modern machines have O2 sensors to prevent this from happening (vet machines not necessarily)

12

may delay effects of apnea/hypoventilation by _________ of oxygen.

passive insufflation
(preoxygenate)

13

Anatomic shunt

R>L shunt (classic PDA)
- doesn't resolve like the physiologic shunt

14

diffusion impairment most common disease?

pulmonary fibrosis - westies

(least common cause of hypoxemia)

15

4 types of hypoxia

1. circulatory (cardiac arrest)
2. anemic
3. cytotoxic (cyanide)
4. hypoxemic

16

peak inspiratory pressure should not exceed?

20 cm H20

17

PEEP, keeps pressure always above ___.

zero

18

inspiratory:expiratory ratio

1:2 is normal

19

how to set up ventilator

1. turn tidal vol down
2. empty bag and attach ventilator to where bag was
3. close pop off valve
4. attach scavenger
5. set rates, slowly increase to desired volume(15 ml/kg) and 10-12 cm H20.