16: Exploitation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16: Exploitation Deck (18)
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1

Types of Predation/Exploitation

1. True Predator
2. Herbivores
3. Parasitism

2

True Predator

-Kill prey immediately
-consume multiple prey organisms
-function as agents of mortality on their prey

3

Herbivores

-consume only part of a plant
-doesn't cause mortality

4

Parasitism/Parasitoids

-feeds on host while it is alive
-generally the activity isn't lethal over the short term

5

Types of Population Growth Control

1. Bottom-Up
2. Top-Down

6

Prey can regulate predator population growth

Bottom-Up Population Control

7

Predation can regulate prey population growth

Top-Down Population Control

8

Passive Predators (Filter Feeders) functional response type

Type I

9

What can cause Type III functional response?

Refuge and Prey Switching

10

Numerical Responses to Prey Density

more prey=more predators=more prey consumed (consumptive effects/lethal effects)

11

Aggregative Response to Prey Density

more food=more predators coming to feed

12

Reproductive Response to Prey Density

more food=more offspring

13

Functional Response to Prey Density

more prey eaten per predator

14

Functional Response to Predator Density

more predators=less prey around (trait-mediated/non-lethal effects)

15

"smarter prey" Hypothesis

Predators act as an agent of mortality. Prey that can evolve to reduce detection and capture by predators should have higher fitness. Thus, evolution should produce "smarter" more evasive prey.

16

"smarter predator" Hypothesis

Failure to capture prey reduces fitness in the predator. Thus, evolution should produce "smarter" more skilled predators.

17

The Red Queen Hypothesis

To avoid extinction they must evolve means of outsmarting one another just to stay where they are.

18

Adaptations to avoid predation (can be energetically costly)

-Chemical defenses (secretions or poisons that deter predators)
-cryptic coloration
-mimicry
-Batesian Mimicry
-warning colors
-armor
-behavior