16) The Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16) The Larynx Deck (38):
1

What are the functions of the larynx? (4)

Ventilation
Airway protection
Cough
Phonation

2

Describe the location of the larynx:

Between hyoid bone and trachea (C4-C6)

3

What are the main cartilages making up the larynx?

Epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid and arytenoid

4

Where does the epiglottis attach?

Anteriorly to hyoid and inferiorly to thyroid cartilage (thryoepiglottic ligament)

5

What is the function of the epiglottis?

Cover laryngeal inlet to prevent fluids or food entering resp. tract

6

What is the vallecula and its significance?

Depression between tongue base and epiglottis
Important for intubation of trachea

7

Describe the movements during swallowing to prevent food entering the respiratory tract:

Epiglottis pulled down and larynx pulled up and forward

8

How does epiglottitis present?

Sore throat, fever, drooling, sounds on breathing

9

What is the likely causative organism of epiglottitis?

H. influenzae

10

Describe the structure of the thyroid cartilage:

Two laminae meeting in midline to create the laryngeal prominence

11

How is the thyroid cartilage joined to the other cartilages of the larynx and nearby bone?

Joined to hyoid by thyrohyoid membrane
Joined to cricoid by cricothyroid ligament (membrane)

12

Describe the cricoid cartilage:

Complete ring of cartilage, connected to trachea by cricotracheal membrane

13

Describe the arytenoid cartilages and what attaches to them:

Sit on top of cricoid posteriorly and are points of attachment for vocal and vestibular ligaments

14

What is cricoid pressure?

Pressing on cricoid cartilage from front to compress oesophagus and stop regurgitation

15

What is a cricothryoidotomy?

Making an emergency airway through cricothyroid membrane

16

What forms the false vocal cords?

Vestibular fold (ligament)

17

Describe the true vocal cords:

Vocal fold with vocal ligament and vocalis muscles forms true vocal cord. Stratified squamous epithelium

18

Where do the vocal cords attach?

Anteriorly - thyroid cartilage (fixed)
Posteriorly - arytenoid (mobile)

19

How are the vocal cords moved?

Intrinsic muscles of larynx pull arytenoids causing them to pivot on cricoid cartilage and move the cords

20

How would the vocal cords appear during ventilation?

Abducted

21

How would the vocal cords appear during phonation?

Partially abducted

22

How would the vocal cords appear during swallowing?

Adducted

23

What is the only intrinsic muscle of the larynx to be located external to the larynx?

Cricothyroid

24

What is the function of cricothyroid?

Tense the vocal cords causing higher pitch sounds

25

What is the innervation to cricothyroid?

External branch of superior laryngeal nerve (CN X)

26

What muscle causes abduction of the vocal cords?

Posterior cricoarytenoid

27

What are some functions of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Adduction and abduction
Relaxation and tension of vocal cords
Pulls epiglottis over laryngeal inlet

28

What are the 3 regions of the larynx?

Supraglottis - epiglottis to vestibular folds
Glottis - cords plus 1 cm
Subglottis - to lower border of cricoid

29

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate?

Sensory to subglottis and motor to intrinsic muscles of larynx

30

What does the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve innervate?

Sensory to supraglottis

31

Following thyroid surgery, a woman presents with a deep, hoarse voice. What has occurred?

Damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve as inferior thyroid artery runs near nerve

32

What are some causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy?

Thyroid disease
Laryngeal cancer
Thyroidectomy
Apical lung tumour
Aortic aneurysm

33

How does unilateral complete injury of recurrent laryngeal nerve present?

Vocal cords in neutral position
Hoarseness and weaker cough

34

How does bilateral injury of recurrent laryngeal nerve present?

Difficulty breathing
Stridor
Can't speak properly

35

What type are the majority of laryngeal cancers?

Squamous cell carcinoma

36

What are some risk factors for laryngeal cancer?

Smoking and alcohol
Male

37

Why is the prognosis of cancer favourable if only the glottis is affected?

Minimal lymphatic drainage for glottis so less likely to spread

38

What are some symptoms of laryngeal cancer?

Hoarseness
Foreign body sensation in throat
Dysphagia and odynophagia
Otalgia (referred)
Cough
Weight loss