Flashcards in 2.1. The Structure and Function of Reproductive Organs and Gametes Deck (15):
Germline cells divide through what process to form:
a) Another diploid germline cell
b) A haploid gamete
What are the male reproductive organs?
Where is sperm produced?
The seminiferous tubules in the testes.
How is sperm produced?
The germline cells which line the seminiferous tubules divide by mitosis first, then meiosis which produces the male gamete.
Where is testosterone produced and what does it stimulate?
Testosterone is produced in the interstitial cells found between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone stimulates sperm production and activates the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles.
What does the prostate gland secrete and what does this secretion do?
The prostate gland secretes enzymes which keep the semen at the right viscosity to help sperm cells swim at optimal efficiency.
What do the seminal vesicles secrete and what does this secretion do?
The seminal vesicles secrete fructose which provides the sperm cells with energy for them to swim. They also secrete prostaglandins which cause the muscles in the female reproductive system to contract helping the sperm swim to the oviduct.
What are the female reproductive organs?
What do the ovaries produce (hormones and cells)?
The ovaries produce the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, they also release ova, the female gamete.
How are ova produced?
Ovaries contain germline cells which develop into immature ova. The immature ovum is then surrounded by a follicle which protects it. The ovum is released when it reaches maturity.
What does the follicle secrete?
The hormone oestrogen.
If an ovum is fertilised, what happens?
Once an ovum is fertilised it develops into a zygote. It then divides by mitosis a few times and forms a blastocyst. This blastocyst continues along the oviduct and implants itself into the endometrium where it completes its development.
What does the follicle turn into once ovulation occurs?
A corpus luteum.
What does the corpus luteum secrete?
The hormone progesterone.