Flashcards in 5 - Repro - Control of Reproductive Processes Deck (43):
From where is GnRH secreted?
How is GnRH transported to the anterior pituitary?
Hypophyseal portal system
Define portal system:
Vascular arrangement where blood from a capillary bed is transported to another capillary bed, via connecting veins
What type of cells in the anterior pituitary does GnRH act on?
How do the gonadotropes respond to GnRH?
Secrete FSH + LH
Why does oestrogen levels increase towards ovulation?
As the follicle grows, more oestrogens are secreted in response to a given gonadotropic stimulation
Why does progesterone and oestrogens increase after ovulation?
As the corpus luteum grows, more progesterone and oestrogens are secreted in response to a given concentration of LH
Leydig cells in the testes bind LH. What is the effect of this?
LH stimulates Testosterone production from Leydig cells
How does FSH affect Sertoli cells?
Maintains them and makes them responsive to Testosterone
Approx. how much testosterone is secreted by Leydig cells per day?
~ 4-10 mg/day
Which hormones produced by the gonads REDUCE GnRH secretion?
- Oestrogen (at moderate concentrations)
How does Oestrogen (at moderate concentrations) affect GnRH secretion?
Reduces GnRH secretions from the hypothalamus
- Reduces the amount of GnRH released per pulse
Why can the LH surge only occur at low concentrations of progesterone?
Progesterone inhibits oestrogen from having a positive feedback affect on the hypothalamus. This positive feedback causes a GnRH surge, which results in the LH surge from the anterior pituitary.
Which cells secrete inhibin?
- Females = granulosa cells
- Males = Sertoli cells (when spermatogenesis occurs too rapidly)
What is meant by a 'determinative' effect of testosterone?
An effect which is only partly reversible, if at all (non dependent on continuous production of testosterone)
- most secondary sex characteristics are 'determinative' effects, ie deepening of voice
What is meant by a 'regulatory' effect of testosterone?
An effect which is reversible, and dependent of continuous production of testosterone.
- ie maintenance of internal genitalia, aggression and sexual activity
What are the 2 phases of the ovarian cycle?
- Follicular phase
- Luteal phase
High concentrations of oestrogen cause a GnRH surge, resulting in an LH surge. Why doesn't FSH concentrations also increase?
Granulosa cells secrete inhibin, which suppresses FSH release
On which day of the menstrual cycle does the concentration of LH peak?
On which day of the menstrual cycle does the concentration of progesterone peak?
What are the 3 stages of the endometrial cycle?
- Proliferative phase
- Secretory phase
Which main hormonal change causes menses to occur?
Sudden drop in progesterone (+ oestrogen)
Which main hormonal change causes the proliferative phase of the endometrial cycle?
Increasing concentration of oestrogen
Which main hormonal change causes the secretory phase of the endometrial cycle?
Increasing concentration of progesterone
Which hormone stimulates endometrial thickening and secretion of cervical mucus in the follicular stage?
Which hormone stimulates the development of the spiral arteries and increase in basal body temperature in the luteal phase?
Progesterone (on oestrogen primed cells)
What is the length of a normal menstrual cycle?
~ 21 - 35 days
Which phase of the ovarian cycle is always 14 days, regardless of length of menstrual cycle?
What is the relationship between FSH and inhibin?
Negative feedback mechanism:
When concentrations of FSH increase, this stimulates granulosa cells to secrete inhibin, which has a negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus, causing decreased FSH secretion.
Name the part of the fallopian tubes which capture the ovum released from the ovaries:
What types of cells make up the epithelium of the fallopian tubes?
- Ciliated columnar cells
- Peg cells (secrete mucous)
Which part of the female genital tract has a convoluted lumen?
Name the innermost layer of the uterine wall:
Name the 2 layers of the endometrium:
- Stratum basalis
- Stratum functionalis
Which layer of the uterine wall is shed during menses?
Stratum functionalis of the endometrium
Describe the myometrium:
- Middle layer of the uterine wall
- 4 layers of ill-defined smooth muscle
Describe the arteries which supply the endometrium:
- Stratum basalis = supplied by straight arteries
- Stratum functionalis = supplied by coiled arteries
What is the arterial supply to the uterus?
Uterine arteries (from internal iliac arteries)
Describe the epithelium of the cervix:
- Except @ External Os: Non-keratinised simple squamous
Describe the epithelium of the vagina:
Non-keratinised simple squamous
What types of muscle make up the muscular wall of the vagina?
Why do some women experience tender breasts before their menses?
Increasing concentration of oestrogen causes duct proliferation, which can cause tenderness