6 - Repro - Puberty + Menstruation Abnormalities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6 - Repro - Puberty + Menstruation Abnormalities Deck (30):
1

Define puberty:

A stage of human development when sexual maturation and growth are completed, resulting in the ability to reproduce.

2

What is the age range for the normal start of puberty?

Females: 8-13 yrs
Males: 9-14 yrs

3

What initiates puberty?

KISS neuropeptides in brain secrete KISS:
= Initiates GnRH secretion

4

What is the main determining factor of the initiation of puberty?

Body weight

5

What is the normal body weight that girls must reach to initiate the growth spurt in puberty?

~ 30 kg

6

What is the normal body weight that girls must reach to initiate menarche?

~ 47 kg

7

What is the normal body weight that boys must reach to initiate the growth spurt in puberty?

~ 55 kg

8

Approx. how fast do girls grow during the growth spurt in puberty?

~ 9 cm/year

9

Approx. how fast do boys grow during the growth spurt in puberty?

~ 10 cm/year

10

Approx how long does puberty last?

~ 5 yrs

11

Which hormones causes the growth of the pelvis in girls during puberty?

Oestrogens

12

Define thelarche:

Onset of female breast development
~ 10.5 - 13.5 yrs

13

Menarche has usually occurred by what age in girls?

< 13 yrs

14

What are the first signs of puberty?

Females = breast development
Males = Testicular volume ~ 4ml

15

Define precocious puberty:

Onset younger than 2 SD before average age:
Females = < 8 yrs
Males = < 9 yrs

16

List some causes of precocious puberty:

- CNS tumours
- CNS trauma
- Congenital disorders ie hydrocephalus, testotoxicosis, adrenal hyperplasia
- hCG-secreting tumours
- Choriocarcinomas
- Adrenal tumours
- Exogenous oestrogen or androgen exposure

17

Define delayed puberty:

Initial physical changes of puberty not present by:
Females = 13 yrs (or no menarche by 15/16yrs)
Males = 14 yrs

18

List some causes of delayed puberty:

- Malnutrition ie AN, CF
- Chronic disease ie Crohn's
- Excessive exercise ie athletes
- Steroids
- Hypothyroidism
- Post-malignancy chemo/radiotherapy
- Turners syndrome
- CNS tumours
- Congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

19

List some symptoms of the menopause:

- Itchy
- Sweaty
- Twitchy
- Sleepy
- Bloated
- Moody
- Forgetful

20

What is the average age range of menopause onset?

~ 49-51 yrs

21

What is the hormonal change which results in hot flushes during the menopause?

Drop in both progesterone and oestrogen results in vascular changes

22

What is the hormonal change which increases the risk of urinary incontinence after the menopause?

Drop in oestrogen = decreases pelvic tone

23

Which hormones change during the menopause?

- Oestrogen drops
- Progesterone drops
- LH increases
- FSH increases

24

What is HRT and what are some ways of taking it?

Hormone Replacement Therapy, usually Oestrogen + Progesterone:
- Tablets
- Creams
- Skin patches
- Pessaries
- Rings

25

What are the main risks associated with HRT?

- Blood clots --> Stroke/thromboembolism
- Breast cancer
- Bladder disease

26

Define menorrhagia:

Abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding

27

What are some causes of menorrhagia?

- Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)
- Hormone imbalance ie the pill
- Uterine/ovarian/cervical cancer
- Inherited blood coagulation disorders
- Uterine fibroids

28

What drugs can be used to treat menorrhagia?

- NSAIDs
- Iron
- Tranexamic acid
- Oral contraceptives

29

What are some causes for irregular menstrual bleeding?

- Common in 1st 3 months of hormonal contraception
- Missed pill
- PCOS
- St. Johns Wort while on pill/ring/implant

30

Define secondary amenorrhoea:

Cessation of normal menstrual periods for > 6 months