7 Major Cellular Compartments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7 Major Cellular Compartments Deck (20)
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1

Nucleus:

DNA-

Chromatin (2 pts)
Hetero-
Eu-

"Blue print" for the entire organism
*DNA for the whole body

Hetero- coarse granules, not active
Eu- diffuse basophilic material, active

2

Nucleus:

Nucleolus makes ______

rRNA

3

Nucleus:

Human chromosomes-
How many pairs?

22 pairs

*autosomes and 1 pair sex chromosomes

4

Cytosol:

Represents-

Contains-

55% cell volume (big amount)

Thousands of enzymes

5

Cytosol:

Catalyzes...

Biosynthesis...

Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis

Sugars, fatty acids, nucleotides, amino acids

6

7 major cellular compartments

Nucleus
Cytosol
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Golgi complex/appartatus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Perioxisomes

7

Cytosol balances______

pH of the cell

8

Cytosol:

Stores _____ and _____

Ribosomes-

Fats and glycogen

Large ribonucleoprotein particle
*mRNA sequence translated into amino acids
*binds amino acids together

9

Endoplasmic reticulum:

Smooth or rough depending on...

____% of cell volume

Continuous with the ____ _____ _____

Presence or absence of ribosomes.

10

Outer nuclear membrane

10

ER functions:

Separates molecules for...

Production of proteins lipids and complex carbs- (4 pts)

Cellular use from those to be exported

1. Golgi apparatus
2. Plasma membrane
3. Lysosomes
4. Cell exterior

11

Golgi apparatus:

Found near the..

Consists of...

Nucleus

Several cisternae

12

Golgi apparatus:

Number of cells _____ ______

Two distinct faces:

Varies enormously

1. Cis or forming
2. Trans or maturing

13

Golgi apparatus functions:

Principle director of ______

Modifies ______ usually with specialized sugars

Packages proteins for _____

Macromolecules
*proteins and lipids and their modified forms

Macromolecules
*sugar gives direction

Secretion

14

Mitochondria: "power house"

Number is dependent on..

The cells energy requirements

15

Mitochondria:

Symbolic relationship (3 pts)

Contains its own DNA
Now dependent on cell for many proteins
Cells now dependent on it for energy

16

Mitochondria function:

Metabolism of sugar and ____ ____ to create ____

1 glucose= ___ ATP

Fatty acids, ATP

36

*without these oxidative reactions, glycolysis produces only 2 ATP for 1 glucose

17

Mitochondria function:

ATP mostly created by the ___ ____ ____

Electron transport chain

18

Lysosomes:

Function..

Primary lysosome contains

Secondary lysosome combines with a ____ or ____

Dissolve, digest, detoxify substances for the cell

Hydrolytic enzymes

Vacuole or vesicle

19

Peroxisome:

Produced on...

Uses oxygen to create ____ ____

Smooth ER

Hydrogen peroxide

20

Peroxisome:

May also generate _____ and ____ from hydrogen peroxide

Important in _______ reactions

Water and oxygen

Detoxifying