7.0 Cancer Flashcards Preview

MedST IB: Biology of Disease (BoD) > 7.0 Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.0 Cancer Deck (35)
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1

What can the genetic changes in cancer be due to?

1) Mutations
- Anything that alters DNA sequence

2) Epigenetics
- Methylation / histone modifications

3) Viruses
- Tumour viruses bring extra genes into cell

2

What normally precedes a colorectal malignant tumour?

Polyp/adenoma

3

Common sites for metastasis:

1) Brain
2) Liver
3) Bone marrow
4) Lung

4

Where does breast cancer normally metastasise?

Local lymph nodes and bone

5

Where does colorectal cancer normally metastasise?

Liver

6

Define lipoma:

Benign fat cell tumour

7

Define leiomyoma:

Benign smooth muscle tumour

8

Define Adenoma:

Benign tumour of glandular tissue

9

Define papilloma:

Wart

10

Define carcinoma:

Malignant epithelial tumour

11

Define adenocarcinoma:

Malignant epithelial tumour of glandular origin

12

Define liposarcoma:

Malignant fat cell tumour

13

Define leimyosarcoma:

Malignant smooth muscle tumour

14

Define osteosarcoma:

Malignant bone tumour

15

What are neuroblastomas / glioblastomas?

Both are malignant neural tumours

16

Difference between leukaemias and lymphomas:

Leukaemias = Liquid haematopoietic neoplasms

Lymphomas = Solid haematopoietic neoplasms (usually lymphocytic)

17

Define the following terms with examples:

1) Neoplasia
2) Hyperplasia
3) Metaplasia
4) Dysplasia

"
"

18

Define cachexia:

General systemic wasting

Exact mechanism unknown - ?competition for metabolic resources?

19

Oncogenes vs tumour suppressor genes:

Oncogene
- Overactivity mutations
- Dominant in the cell
- Only one copy needs to be mutated

Tumour suppressor genes
- Loss of function mutations
- Recessive in the cell
- Both copies need to be mutated

20

What is the structure of p53?

Tetramer

This creates a unique form of mutation. It is a tumour supressor gene but only needs one copy of the gene to be mutated to have an effect. Losing both copies has a stronger effect

21

What are the two types of genetic instability in colon cancer?

1) Chromosomal instability (CIN)
- Rearranged chromosomes
- Due to loss of protective mechanisms against chromosome aberrations

2) Sequence instability
- Normal chromosomes
- microsatellite instability
- Mainly due to DNA mismatch repair inactivation

22

What are MLH1 + MSH2 needed for?

Mismatch repair

Defects seen in colon cancer

23

What is BRCA2 needed for?

Single + double strand repair

Defects seen in breast cancer

24

What are the hallmarks of cancer?

Proliferation and survival changes
1) Independence of growth signals
2) Resistance to growth inhibitory signals
3) Resistance to apoptosis
4) Immortality
5) Differentiation block

Genetic instability
6) Metabolic changes
7) Angiogenesis
8) Metastasis

25

What molecules are pro-apoptotic?

BAX
p53
Cytochrome C
Caspases

26

What molecules are anti-apoptotic?

Bcl2

27

What are the repeats in telomeres?

TTAGGG

28

What can HPV do to Rb-1 and p53?

Bind to and inactivate

29

What is the major barrier to metastasizing cells?

Survival and growth in distant site (many cells can circulate body and exit circulation at different sites - most die because cannot survive and grow at this site)

30

Define initiator (with regards to cancer):

Initiator = chemicals that damage DNA directly