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1

What is acute inflammation?

A fundamental response maintaining the integrity of an organism

A series of protective changes occuring in living tissue as a response to injury

2

What are signs of acute inflammation?

Redness

Heat

Swelling

Pain

Loss of function

3

What are possible aetiology (causes) of acute inflammation?

Microorganisms

Mechanical (trauma to tissue)

Chemical (acid or alkali)

Physical (extreme heat, cold or ionisation)

Dead tissue

Hypersensitivity

4

Where does acute inflammation happen?

Localised to affected tissue

5

What is the process of acute inflammation?

Series of microscoping changes that take place in the circulation

6

What is the microcirculation composed of?

Capillary beds (fed by arterioles and drained by venules)

Extracellular space and fluid

Lymphatic channels and drainage

7

What does the flux of fluids across the microcirculation depend on?

The difference in pressure in and out pulling the fluid in opposite directions (hydrostatic and cologenic pressures)

8

What does acute inflammation lead to in the microcirculation?

Changes in vessel radias (flow)

Changes in permeability of the vessel wall (exudation)

Movement of neutrophils from the vessel to the extracellular space

9

What are the changes in vessel flow known as?

Triple response

10

What is the process of the triple response?

1) Temporary arteriolar constriction (protective)

2) Local arteriolar dilation (active hyperaemia)

3) Relaxation of vessel smooth muscle

11

What is flow proportional to?

Radias to the power of 4

12

What does a small increase in a vessel radias lead to?

A massive increase in flow

13

What symptoms does the increased flow cause?

Redness and heat

14

What does increasing vessel permeability result in?

Net movement of plasma from capillaries to extravascular space

Increased viscocity which decreases flow

15

What does increased viscocity cause?

White blood cells to travel to the edge of the vessel and the erythrocytes to the middle, which is the opposite to how they normally are

16

What is exudation?

Process of increasing the vessel permeability

17

What is exudate?

The fluid that leaks from a vessel during exudaiton, rich in protein including immunoglobulin and fibrinogen

18

What does exudation result in?

Formation of oedema, which explains the swelling which causes pain and reduced function

19

What is oedema?

Accumulation of liquid in the extracellular space

20

What are the phases of the emigration of neutrophils?

1) Migration (moves to edges of lumen)

2) Pavementing (adhere to the endothelium)

3) Emigration (squeeze between endothelial cells to the extravascular space)

21

What are some examples of diseases caused by inflammation?

Gingivitis

Pleural inflammation

Appendicitis

22

What is the ideal outcome of acute inflammation?

Inciting agent isolated and destroyed

Epithelial surface regenerates

Exudate is filtered away

Vascular changes return to normal

Inflammation resolves

23

What are the benefits of acute inflammation?

Rapid response to nonspecific insult

Neutrophils destroy organism and denature antigen for macrophages

Plasma proteins localise process

24

What are the possible outcomes of acute inflammation?

Resolution

Suppuration (pus formation)

Organisation

Chronic inflammation