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Flashcards in Airway Management & CV Collapse Deck (55)
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1

What does ABC mean in an emergent setting?

Airway
Breathing
Circulation

2

Airway Management in General

Head tilt-chin lift
Jaw thrust
Suction if needed
BVM if no respiratory effort
Insert NPA/OPA

3

Airway Management in Unconscious Patient with Respiratory Effort

Administer high-flow oxygen
Ensure no upper airway obstruction
Insert NPA/OPA
Suspected lower airway obstruction: Heimlich maneuver

4

Types of "High-Flow" Oxygen

Nasal cannula: 6 L/min
Venti-masks
Non-rebreather mask

5

In what type of patient is a NPA better tolerated compared to the OPA?

Conscious patients

6

When can a NPA be used?

Conscious
Unconscious
Patients with intact gag reflex

7

Complication of a NPA

Epistaxis

8

How to Measure a NPA

Tip of nose to earlobe

9

When are oropharyngeal airways generally used?

Unconscious patients

10

Why does an OPA need to be inserted carefully?

So the tongue is not pushed back into the pharynx blocking the airway

11

How to Measure an OPA

Mouth to angle of the mandible

12

Indications for a Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)

Rescue device after failed intubation
Attempted quickly while another person preparing for cricothyroidotomy
Prehospital setting
Plan for short term intubation
Good alternative to BVM ventilation: decrease intubation risk

13

Where does an LMA sit?

Patient's hypo pharynx and covers the supraglottic structures
Isolates the trachea

14

Where is an LMA used?

OR
ED
EMS

15

Contraindications to an LMA

Cannot open mouth
Complete upper airway obstruction

16

How to Insert an LMA

Select proper size
Inflate/deflate cuff
Lubricate back of mask
Patient placed in sniffing position
Slide mask down posterior pharyngeal wall until resistance felt
Inflate mask
Confirm tube position

17

LMA Complications

Necrosis: if cuff overinflated
Mask tip can fold and cause obstruction by pushing on epiglottis
Mask tip can fold back on itself

18

Intubation "Rules"

Oxygenate before and after intubations
Intubate early
Intubate as soon as you think of it
Make sure patient isn't a DNI/DNR

19

Why are rapidly acting sedatives and a neuromuscular blocking agent used in intubation?

Minimize risk of aspiration of stomach contents

20

Indications for Rapid Sequence Intubation (RSI)

Standard of care for intubations not anticipated to be difficult

21

Contraindications of RSI

Anticipating difficult airway placement
Inability to ventilate patient (paralytic may be contraindicated)

22

7 P's of RSI

Preparation
Pre-oxygenation
Pre-treatment
Paralysis
Protection and positioning
Placement with proof
Post-intubation management

23

Pneumonic for Preparation in RSI

STOP MAID

24

What does STOP MAID stand for?

S: suction
T: tools for intubation
O: oxygen source
P: positioning
M: monitors
A: assistant, Ambu bag with face mask, airway devices, airway assessment
I: IV access
D: drugs

25

Tools Used in Intubation

Laryngoscope blades
Handle
Video laryngoscope

26

Types of Monitors Necessary for Intubation

ECG
Pulse oximetry
Blood pressure
ETCO2
Esophageal detectors

27

Preoxygenation in RSI

Administration of high-flow oxygen
Take 8 VC breaths
Manual ventilation if necessary
Maintain potency of upper airway
5L of O2 via NC

28

Pretreatment in RSI

Atropine for pediatric patients
Lidocaine
Opioids

29

Medications that can be Used for Paralysis with Induction

Etomidate
Ketamine
Midazolam (versed)
Propofol
Thiopental sodium
Methohexital

30

Benefits of Etomidate

Excellent sedation with little hypotension