Flashcards in Alcohol Deck (35)
What is ethanol?
Colourless, volatile liquid
Also found in many other products e.g. perfume, mouthwash
What are the effects of 20mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood?
Disinhibition- euphoria, emotional, instability and release of social and sexual inhibitions, loss of judgment
What are the effects of 80mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood
Above effects become pronounced and motor coordination becomes affected and there is a marked effect on judgement
What are the effects of 200mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood
Motor coordination is progressively lost and speech becomes slurred
What are the effects of 300mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood
What are the effects of 400mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood
Death from respiratory failure
What is the highest level of blood alcohol ever seen?
628mg/100mL of blood
What is pharmacokinetics of alcohol?
Pharmo (drugs) kinetics (movement)- i.e. movement of drugs around the body
Where is alcohol rapidly absorbed?
Mouth, lungs, stomach and small intestine
Where is alcohol absorbed if drinking about 20%?
Stomach and rest of small intestine (peak blood concentration in 30-60 minutes)
Where is alcohol cleared from?
Predominantly by metabolism in the liver
Why does fizzy/gassy alcohol get you drunker quicker?
Alcohol is inhaled into the lungs
What causes a hangover?
What does alcohol metabolise to?
CH3CH2OH + NAD+ -> CH3CHO + NADH
What is clearance of alcohol?
Zero order (alcohol clears at a constant rate) i.e. ethanol cleared at a constant rate regardless of concentration
What is an Intoximeter (IR/EC)
Detection of alcohol in expired air
Detects mouth alcohol and interfering substances
What does an Intoximeter measure?
Lung alcohol concentration
How is alcohol content in blood measured?
Usually gas chromatography of extracted blood sample with IR/EC detector
What does IR stand for?
What does EC stand for?
Electron Capture- specifically picks up alcohol
What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 4 (1)?
Driving a motor vehicle whilst unfit through drink or drugs
What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 4 (2)?
Being in charge of a motor vehicle whilst unfit through drink or drugs
Field Impairment test shows nothing about the ability to drive
What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 5 (1)(a)?
Driving a motor vehicle after consuming so much alcohol that the proportion in breath or blood was >22 microgrammes per 100mL of breath, >50 milligrammes per 100mL of blood or >69 milligrammes of alcohol in 100mL of urine.
What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 5 (1)(b)?
Being in charge of a motor vehicle after consuming so much alcohol that the proportion in breath or blood was >35 microgrammes per 100mL of breath, >80 milligrammes per 100mL of blood or > 107 milligrammes of alcohol in 100mL of urine.
What is the procedure when it comes to drink driving?
Police stop suspect- accident or other road traffic offence
Detect alcohol (smell)
Roadside breath test
If positive, arrest and take to Police Office
If the intoximeter is <40 what do you do?
Release without charge
If the intoximeter is >50 what do you do?
If the intoximeter is between 40-50 what do you do?
Take blood/urine sample
What is statutory defence?
In which a party cannot be shown to have acted purposely, knowingly, recklessly, or negligently as the law may require, with respect to each material element of the offence.
What is a statutory defence in drink drive cases?
No intention to drive need calculation of when subject would fall below the statutory limit
What are the lines of defence in drink driving cases?
Section 4 & 5- statutory defence
How can post-incidence drinking be a defence?
Drink after the events been occurred
E.g. Have hip flask in car, be pulled over and then take a drink before the police speak to you
How can section 5 be used as a defence?
Calculations required to verify evidence
How are calculations done
How are calculations of alcohol concentration calculated?
Height and weight of subject Amount of alcohol consumed (type and volume) When alcohol consumed (important is START TIME) Intoximeter and/or blood sample readings
What times values needed for