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Forensic BioScience > Alcohol > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohol Deck (35)
1

What is ethanol?

CH3CH2OH, alcohol
Colourless, volatile liquid
Also found in many other products e.g. perfume, mouthwash

2

What are the effects of 20mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood?

Disinhibition- euphoria, emotional, instability and release of social and sexual inhibitions, loss of judgment

3

What are the effects of 80mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood

Above effects become pronounced and motor coordination becomes affected and there is a marked effect on judgement

4

What are the effects of 200mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood

Motor coordination is progressively lost and speech becomes slurred

5

What are the effects of 300mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood

Unconsciousness

6

What are the effects of 400mg of alcohol per 100mL of blood

Death from respiratory failure

7

What is the highest level of blood alcohol ever seen?

628mg/100mL of blood

8

What is pharmacokinetics of alcohol?

Pharmo (drugs) kinetics (movement)- i.e. movement of drugs around the body

9

Where is alcohol rapidly absorbed?

Mouth, lungs, stomach and small intestine

10

Where is alcohol absorbed if drinking about 20%?

Stomach and rest of small intestine (peak blood concentration in 30-60 minutes)

11

Where is alcohol cleared from?

Predominantly by metabolism in the liver

12

Why does fizzy/gassy alcohol get you drunker quicker?

Alcohol is inhaled into the lungs

13

What causes a hangover?

Ethanal

14

What does alcohol metabolise to?

CH3CH2OH + NAD+ -> CH3CHO + NADH

15

What is clearance of alcohol?

Zero order (alcohol clears at a constant rate) i.e. ethanol cleared at a constant rate regardless of concentration

16

What is an Intoximeter (IR/EC)

Detection of alcohol in expired air
Detects mouth alcohol and interfering substances

17

What does an Intoximeter measure?

Lung alcohol concentration

18

How is alcohol content in blood measured?

Usually gas chromatography of extracted blood sample with IR/EC detector

19

What does IR stand for?

Infra Red

20

What does EC stand for?

Electron Capture- specifically picks up alcohol

21

What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 4 (1)?

Driving a motor vehicle whilst unfit through drink or drugs

22

What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 4 (2)?

Being in charge of a motor vehicle whilst unfit through drink or drugs
Field Impairment test shows nothing about the ability to drive

23

What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 5 (1)(a)?

Driving a motor vehicle after consuming so much alcohol that the proportion in breath or blood was >22 microgrammes per 100mL of breath, >50 milligrammes per 100mL of blood or >69 milligrammes of alcohol in 100mL of urine.

24

What is the Road Traffic Act 1988 Section 5 (1)(b)?

Being in charge of a motor vehicle after consuming so much alcohol that the proportion in breath or blood was >35 microgrammes per 100mL of breath, >80 milligrammes per 100mL of blood or > 107 milligrammes of alcohol in 100mL of urine.

25

What is the procedure when it comes to drink driving?

Police stop suspect- accident or other road traffic offence
Detect alcohol (smell)
Roadside breath test
If positive, arrest and take to Police Office
Intoximeter procedure

26

If the intoximeter is <40 what do you do?

Release without charge

27

If the intoximeter is >50 what do you do?

Charge

28

If the intoximeter is between 40-50 what do you do?

Take blood/urine sample

29

What is statutory defence?

In which a party cannot be shown to have acted purposely, knowingly, recklessly, or negligently as the law may require, with respect to each material element of the offence.

30

What is a statutory defence in drink drive cases?

No intention to drive need calculation of when subject would fall below the statutory limit

31

What are the lines of defence in drink driving cases?

Section 4 & 5- statutory defence
Post-incidence drinking

32

How can post-incidence drinking be a defence?

Drink after the events been occurred
E.g. Have hip flask in car, be pulled over and then take a drink before the police speak to you

33

How can section 5 be used as a defence?

Spiked drinks
Calculations required to verify evidence
How are calculations done

34

How are calculations of alcohol concentration calculated?

Height and weight of subject Amount of alcohol consumed (type and volume) When alcohol consumed (important is START TIME) Intoximeter and/or blood sample readings
What times values needed for

35

What is the difference in gender between uptake and clearance of alcohol?

There is no difference between males and females