Anaemia Flashcards Preview

ESA 5 - Integrative > Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaemia Deck (19):
1

Decribe the creation of an erythrocyte

hemocytoblast --> proerythroblast --> normoblast --> reticulocyte --> erythrocyte

2

How do the kidneys regulate erythropoeisis?

erythropoeitin released in hypoxic conditions. eyrhtropoietin acts on bone marrow to increase number of erythrocyte progenitor cells.

3

What 2 metabolic pathways are found in the RBC? What can abnormalities in these pathways lead to?

Embden-Meyerhof Pathway - glucose metabolised to lactate to produce ATP. Used to maintain membrane pumps.

Hexose monophosphate pathway - G6P used to generate NADPH.

abnormalities lead to anaemia

4

define anemia in adult men and women

men -

5

How does the body respond to anemia?

Increasing CO, produce more 2,3-BPG, increasing erythropoeisis,

6

What are the symptoms of anemia?

dyspnoea, weakness and lethargy, palpitations, headaches, tachycardia, pallor

7

What are the 2 ways anaemia can occur?

reduced production or increased removal

8

how can anemia be classified?

High (due to hemorrhage or hemolysis) and low reticulocytes (reduced production)

9

How would you test for hemolysis? What would each test show?

Blood films - show spherocytosis, red cell fragments etc
Direct coombs test - tests for autoimmune hemolysis
Bilirubin levels or LDH levels
haptoglobin - used to remove Hb from blood by spleen
Reticulocyte count

10

How can low reticulocyte anemia be further subclassified?

microcytic, normocytic, macrocytic

11

Name 5 main causes of microcytic anemia

TAILS
Thalassemia, anaemia of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead, sideoblastic anemia

12

How would you confirm iron deficiency anemia

ferritin and transferrin % saturation tested.

13

Name causes of normocytic anemia

anaemia of chronic disease, renal failure, bone marrow failure

14

Explain the pathogenesis of anemia of chronic disease

In chronic disease there is chronic inflammation. Inflammation produces IL-6 which stimulates increased hepcidin which reduces amount of ferroportin in blood.
Hepcidin reduces iron absorption in gut.

15

name causes of macrocytic anemia

b12 or folate deficiency, hypothyroidism, alcoholism.

16

When would b12 deficiency be seen?

vegetarians, pernicious anemia, iliac disease or surgery

17

when would folate deficiency be seen?

poor diet, malabsorption, drugs

18

What would anaemia of chronic disease show during investigations which are different to iron deficiency anaemia?

Increased ferritin levels, raised inflammatory markers, low % transferrin saturation

19

How would you treat Anemia of chronic disease?

EPO, transfusion, treat underlying disease