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Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215)
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181

list the modality, central connection and function of CN XII

motor
cc- hypoglossal nucleus
f- intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue (expect palato)

182

what CN dont exit brainstem anteriorly

IV (posterioly) and VIII (laterally)

183

what is the motor input to CNs

corticobulbar tract (part of pyramidal tract)

184

what is the parasymp input into CNs 1973

hypothalamus

185

what are the functions of the reticular formation

Integrate cranial nerve reflexes.
Participate in conduction and modulation of pain.
Influence voluntary movement.
Regulate autonomic activity.
Integrate some basic functions, like respiration and sleep.
Activate the cerebral cortex

186

what CN in myelinated

CN II (optic)

187

where are the nuclei of the motor CNs

midline of the brainstem

188

what CNs share the solitary nucleus

VII, IX, X
(taste and visceral sensory information)

189

what CNs share the superior and inferior salivatory nucleus

CN VII and IX
(parasymp to ganglia of salivary glands and pterygopalatine ganglion)

190

what CNs share the nucleus ambiguus

CN IX and X
(motor efferents to muscles of pharynx, larynx and upper oesophagus)

191

where is the solitary nucleus

extends in a V shape from upper to lower medulla

192

where is the nucleus ambiguus

lower pons/ upper medulla

193

what is the auditory pathway

1. cochlear nerve (spiral ganglion- carries APs from organ of corti to cochlear nuclei in pons)
2. internal accoustic meatus
3. pontomedullary junction (bilateral now)
4. ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei
5. olivary nucleus (1st synapse- not all synapse here tho for localisation)
6. inferior colliculus (all synapse here)
7. medial geniculate body in thalamus
8. primary auditory cortex

194

why are the suprior olivary and lateral lemniscus nuclei important in the auditory pathway

for locaisation and relays for stapedius and tensor tympani reflexes

195

where is the auditory cortex

temporal superior gyrus

196

what is the vestibular pathway

vestibular nerve
vestibular ganglion
vestibular nuclei
thalamus
cerebral cortex (no primary cortex area)
medial longitudinal fasciculus to CN 3,4,6
6. cerebellum
7. spinal cord via vestibulospinal tract

197

what is the medial longitunidal fasciculus

white matter tract that allows vestibular nuclei to coordinate eye movements

carries both ascending and descending tracts

198

what is tonotopic organisation in the auditory cortec

Fibres carrying information regarding low frequency sound end in the anterolateral part of the auditory cortex

Fibres carrying information regarding high frequency sound end in the posteromedial part of the auditory cortex.

199

what is aphasia

inability to use language

200

what happens if there is damage to brocas area

difficulty in producing language

201

what happens if there is damage to wernickes area

difficulty comprehending language

202

what is the optic pathway

optic nerve
chiasm
optic tract
lateral geniculate nucleus (+superior colliculi)
optic radiation (meyers loop)
visual cortex

203

what part of visual cortex does the lower visual field go to

gyrus superior to the calcarine sulcus

204

what part of visual cortex does the upper visual field go to

gyrus inferior to the calcarine sulcus

205

which visual field goes around meyers loop

upper

206

what part of vision responds to visual stimuli (tracking)

visual cortex

207

what part of vision does movements of command (saccadic)

frontal eye fields

208

what is affected in internuclear ophthalmoplegia

medial longitudinal fasciculus

209

what are the steps of the pupillary light reflex

1.light shone in eye
2. APs reach pretectal nuclei (both sides)
3. edinger-westphal nucleus
4. oculomotor nerves
5. ciliary ganglion
6. pupil constriction (pupillary sphincter)

210

why is the accomoationd reflex different from the pupillary light refelx

as accomodation needs input to EWN and occulomotor nucleus from the visual cortex not just direct pathway