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Flashcards in anatomy Deck (74):
1

Erythrocytes: purpose of large surface area to volume ratio

Rapid gas exchange

2

Erythrocytes life span

120 days

3

Erythrocytes source of energy

Glucose: 90% glycolysis, 10% HMP shunt

4

erythrocyte - Membrane antiporter

cl-/hco3-

5

Erythrocytosis

Polycythemia

6

Poikilocytosis

Varying shapes

7

Reticulocytes - definition/reflects to

immature RBCs
Erythroid proliferation

8

Platelets involved in

1o hemostasis

9

Platelets life span

8-10 days

10

Platelets interacts with other platelets by.....to form ..

Fibrinogen
Platelet plug

11

Platelets types of granules (and what they contain)

Desne granules (ADP, Ca2+)
a granules (vwf, Fibrinogen, fibronectin)

12

Platelets dense granules contain

ADP
Ca2+

13

Platelets a granules

vwf
Fibrinogen
fibronectin

14

1/3 of platelets is stored in

The spleen

15

Vwf receptor on platelets

GpIb

16

Fibrinogen receptor on platelets

GpIIb/IIIa

17

Leukocytes are divided to

Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)
Mononuclear cells (monocytes, lymphocytes)

18

Leukocytes count

4000-10000

19

Leukocytes groups proportions

Neutrophils 54-62%
Lymphocytes 25-33
Monocytes 3-7
Eosinophils 1-3
Basophils 0-0,75

20

Acute inflammation respond cells

Neutrophils

21

Neutrophils kind of granules

Specific granules
Azurophilic granules (lysosomes)

22

Neutrophile specific granules contain

ALP, collagenase, lysozyme, lactoferrin

23

Neutrophils azurophilic granules (lysosomes) contain

Proteinases, acid phosphates, myeloperoxidase, β-glucuronidase

24

Increased nutrophil band cells (immatures neutrophils) reflects states of

Increased myeloid proliferation (bact infection, CML)

25

Important neutrophil chemotactic agents

1. C5a 2. IL-8. 3. LTB-4. 4. Kallikrein 5. Platelet-activating factor

26

Plasma cell cancer

Multiple myeloma

27

Plasma cells histological features

1. Clock face chromatin distribution
2. Abundant RER
3. Well developed Golgi apparatus
4. eccentric nucleus

28

Monocytes histological features

1. Large kidney-shaped nucleus
2. Extensive "frosted glass" cytoplasm

29

Macrophages phagocytose:

1. Bacteria
2. Cellular debris
3. Senescent RBCs

30

Macrophage are activatd by

γ-interferon

31

Macrophage can function also as .... via .....

Antigen presenting cell
MHC II

32

Macrophage are important components of

Granuloma formation

33

Macrophages-septic shock

Lipid A from bacterial LPC binds CD14 on macrophages to initiate septic shock

34

Causes of eosinophilia

Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergic reaction
Chronic adrenal insufficiency
Parasites (invasive)

35

Eosinophils histological features

1. Bilobate nucleus
2. Large eosinophilic granules of uniform size

36

Eosinophils actions

1. Defense against helminthic infections (MBP)
2. Highly phagocytic for antigen antibody complexes

37

Eosinophils produce

1. Histaminase
2. Major basic protein (helminthotoxin)

38

Basophilic - staining readily by

Basic stains

39

Basophilia

Uncommon. Myeloproliferative disease (particularly CML)

40

Basophil actiom

Mediates allergic reaction

41

Basophilic granules

Densely basophilic.. Contain heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (vasodilator)

42

Basophils synthesize and release

Leukotrienes

43

Mast cell appearance of granules

Basophilic

44

IgE cross links, upon antigen binding, causing degranulation, which releases

1. Histamine
2. Heparin
3. Eosinophilic chemotactic factor
4. tryptase

45

It prevents mast cell degranulation

Cromolyn sodium

46

Dendritic cells express ... in their surface

MCH II
Fc receptors

47

Lymphocytes types and appearance (and type of immunity)

- B T (adaptive)
- NK (innate)
Round, densely staining with small amount of pale cytoplasm

48

B cell can function as an APC via

MCH II

49

Mature B cells origin/migrates to

origin: stem cells of bone marrow --> migrates to peripiphera lymphoid tissue:
1. Follicles of lymph nobes
2. White pulp of spleen
3. Unencapsulated lymphoid tissue

50

The majority of circulating cells are

T cells 80%

51

T cell markers

CD3 CD4
CD3 CD8

52

B cell markers

CD 19 20 21

53

CD 28

Constitutional signal necessary for T cell activation

54

Types of T cells

1. CD4
2. CD8
3. Regulatory T cells

55

Erythrocytes shape

Anucleate and biconcave, lacks of organelles, with large surface to volume area ratio

56

Hypersegment polys neutrophils - definition/seen in

nucleus has 6+ lobes
1. Vit b12
2. Folate deficiency

57

Cromolyn sodium is used for

Asthma prophylaxis

58

Dendritic cell links between

Innate and adaptive immune system

59

Dendritic cells in skin

Langerhans

60

B cells participate in

Humoral innate immune response

61

T cells mediates ...

Cellular immune response

62

Platelet activation by

endothelial injury

63

Erythrocytosis vs Poikilocytosis vs anisocytosis

Erythrocytosis --> Polycythemia
Poikilocytosis --> Varying shapes
anisocytosis --> varying sizes

64

Reticulocutes - staining (everything)

Bluish color on Wright-Giemsa stain of reticulocytes represents residual ribosomal RNA

65

thromboyctes (platelets) structure

small cytoplasmic fragment derived from megakaryocytes

66

platelets are activated by

endothelial injury

67

thrmobocytopenia or low platelets function results in

petechiae

68

neutrophils are increased in

bacterial infection

69

monocytes - fate

differentiates into macrophages in tissues

70

Macrophages - duration of life

long life in tissues

71

Mast cells vs Basophilic according to origin

same precursor but are not the same type

72

When antigen is encountered, B cells differentiate into

plasma cells and memory cells

73

T cells - origin

from stem cells in bone marrow --> matures in thymus

74

plasma cells are found in

bone marrow
--> normally do not circulate in peripheral blood