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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (194):
1

how many cranial and spinal nerves

12 pairs of cranial

31 pairs of spinal
-8 cervical
-12 thoracic
-5 lumbar
-5 sacral
-1 coccygeal

2

how does the brain form

from the neural tube
at 4 weeks forms primary vesicles (pros, mes and rhomb -encephalons)
at 6-8 week form secondary vesicles

3

what does the telecephalon form

cerebral hemispheres

4

what does the diencephalon form

thalamus, hypothalamus

5

what does the mesencephalon form

midbrain

6

what does the metencephalon form

pons, cerebellum

7

what does the myelencephalon form

medulla oblongata

8

what makes up the brainstem

mid brain
pons
medulla oblongata

9

what makes up the diencephalon

thalamus + hypothalamus

10

what are the majority of neurones

multipolar with many dendrites and one axon

11

what is the soma of a neurone

contains the nucleus and cellular apparatus

12

what way is electric activity going in an axon

away from the cell body

13

what do glial cell do

support cells for CNS

14

what are the 4 types of glial cells

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells

15

what do astrocytes do

support, maintain BBB, environment homeostasis

(star shaped)

16

what is the role of the BBB

prevents things in blood directly accessing parenchyma of the brain

17

is there connective tissue in the CNS

no- why you need glial cells

18

what is the role of oligodendrocytes

produce myelin in the CNS (not in PNS) (wrap cell membranes around axons to increase the speed of conduction)

19

what is the node of ranvier

a gap between two myelinated axon areas- APs skip from one node to the next

20

what is the role of microglia

(hemopoietic (bone marrow) origin)
immune monitoring and antigen presentation (when activates take on appearance of macrophages)

21

what are ependymal cells

ciliated cuboidal/ culomnar epithelium that line the ventricles

22

what is a gyrus, sulcus and fissure

gyrus- ridge in cerebral cortex
sulcus- groove in cerebral cortex
fissure- deeper than gyrus

23

what fissures does the brain have

lateral (2) and longitudinal

24

what is grey matter

has lots of neurones, cell processes, synapses and support cells
(forms outside of brain)

25

what is white matter

(medullary centre)
axons and their support cells

26

how can you identify the dorsal and ventral horns of the grey matter in the spinal chord

grey matter on inside
dorsal horn extends back towards the posterior surface of the spinal chord
ventral horn is a distance from the anterior surface of the spinal chord

27

what does the calcarine suclus demarcate

primary visual cortex

28

what is the corpus callosum

largest connection between the left and right hemisphere
a band of white matter

29

what is the fornix

band of white matter that goes into the hypothalamus

30

where is the 4th ventricle

sits behind the pons

31

where is the frontal lobe

lobe anterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral sulcus.

anterior to a line drawn from the central sulcus down to the corpus callosum

32

where is the parietal lobe

posterior to the central sulcus, superior to the lateral sulcus (and a backward extension of it), and anterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preocciptial notch

posterior to the frontal lobe and anterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus.

33

where is the occipital lobe

posterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preocciptial notch

posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus.

34

where is the temporal lobe

inferior to the lateral sulcus (and a line extending the lateral sulcus posteriorly) and posteriorly by a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch

35

what is the role of the insular lobe

role in the experience of pain

36

what are the three meninges from superficial to deep

Dura mater

Arachnoid mater.

-Subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Pia mater.

37

what makes up the outer layer of the dura mata

the periosteum of the skull

38

what creates the subarachnoid space

pia mata follow the indentations of the brain but the arachnoid mata does not

39

what joins the lateral ventricles

communicate via 3rd ventricle (via intraventricular foramen)

40

what is the enteric nervous system

found in digestive system
controls motility in the muscles of the digestive system

41

what is the blood supply to the brain

internal carotid system- Common carotid -> internal carotid -> anterior cerebral artery -> (anterior communicating artery), middle cerebral artery

vertebro-basilar system- Subclavian arteries -> vertebral arteries -> unite forming the basilar artery -> anterior inferior cerebellar, superior cerebellar, posterior cerebral arteries(->posterior communicating artery)

circle of willis= Anastomosis between the anterior and posterior circulation

Polygonal anastomosis between:
Internal carotid artery (branch of the common carotid)
Anterior cerebral artery (branch of the internal carotid)
Anterior communicating artery (branch of the anterior carotid, connects left and right anterior cerebral arteries)
Posterior cerebral artery (branch of the basilar artery)
Posterior communicating artery (branch of the posterior cerebral, connects the three cerebral arteries on the same side)

42

what is the venous drainage of the brian

dural venous sinuses drain into the internal jugular vein

43

what makes up the PNS

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

44

what is a ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS (same thing in CNS called a nucleus)

45

how does information reach neurones

dendrites

46

whats the difference betwen multipolar ans unipolar neurones

multipolar:
- 2 or more dendrites
- all MOTOR neurones of
skeletal muscle & ANS (symp and parasymp)
- cell body in CNS

unipolar:
-double process
-aka pseudounipolar / SENSORY
-cell body in PNS

47

what are motor neurones

efferent
impulses towards body wall/ cavity/ organ

48

what are sensory neurones

afferent
impulses towards brain

49

what is a tract

collection of axons surrounded by connective tissue and blood vessels

50

what is single and mixed modalities

a tract can be single:
one of somatic motor, sensory, special sensory, symp, parasymp, visceral afferent

or mixed where different nerves together in one (most tend to be mixed)

51

what cranial nerves connect to CNS at forebrain

CN I and II

52

what cranial nerves connect to CNS at midbrain

III IV

53

what cranial nerves connect to CNS at pons

V

54

what cranial nerves connect to CNS at pontomedullary junction

VI, VII, VIII

55

what cranial nerves connect to CNS at the medulla

CN IX, X, XII

56

what cranial nerves connect to CNS at the spinal chord

XI

57

how do you remeber the modalities of the cranial nerves

some say mary money but my brother says big balls matter more

s= special sensory
m= motor
b= both

58

where in spine are the spinal nerve

intervertebral foramina

59

what do spinal nerves connect to

spinal chord segment at the same number (C1 at C1) via roots and rootlets

structures of the soma (body walll) via rami

60

what is the path of spinal nerves

spinal chord
rootlets (ant and post)
roots (ant and post)
spinal nerve
post and ant rami

61

what does the posterior rami do

is small, supplies the posterior body wall

62

what does the anterior rami do

bigger, supplies the anteriolateral body wall

63

what is the path of sensory axons from spinal nerves to chord

spinal nerve
posterior root
posterior rootlets
posterior horn of the spinal chord

64

what is the path of motor axons from chord to spinal nerves

anterior horn of spinal cord
anterior rootlets
anterior root
spinal nerve

65

what is the dorsal root ganglion

Location of cell bodies of primary afferent neurones

66

are roots mixed or single modality

single (as come from post or ant horn)

67

what does each spinal supply

general sensory supply to all structures

somatic motor supply to skeletal muscles

sympathetic nerve supply to the skin and to the smooth muscle of arterioles

68

what is a dermatome

area of skin supply sensory innervation from a single spinal nerve (and deeper structures)

69

what is a myotome

the skeletal muscles supplied with motor innervation from a single spinal nerve
(may be same as dermatome but not always)

70

what needs to be damaged for an area of skin to be numb

several adjacent spinal nerves as dermatomes overlap

71

what dermatome is the nipple

T4

72

what dermatome is the umbilicus

T10

73

what dermatome is the posterior scalp, neck and shoulder

C2-C4

74

what dermatome is the upper limb

C5-T1

75

what dermatome is the lower limb, gluteal region and perineum

L2-Co1

76

what forms nerve plexuses

ONLY anterior rami

77

what is the cervical plexus

C1-4
supplies posterior scalp, neck and diaphragm

78

what is the brachial plexus

C5-T1
upper limb

79

what is the lumbar plexus

L1-L4
lower limb

80

what is the sacral plexus

L5-S4
lower limb, gluteal region, perineum

81

describe sympathetic outflow

originates from brain
passes down spinal chord
T1-L2 have lateral horns (cell bodies)
thoracolumbar outflow
presynaptic fibres enter the sympathetic trunks and either:
-ascend then synapse (head, cervical cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves, neck, upper limb/ when spinal nerves involved are superior to intereomediolateral nucleus)
-synapse at level of entry (thoracic cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves/ when spinal nerves are at sane level as
IML- middle trunk)
-descend then synapse (when spinal nerves involved are inferior to
IML (part of lower limb))
-pass through snyaptic trunk without synapsing to enter abdominopelvic splanchnic nerve (abdominopelvic viscera only)


present in all spinal nerves

82

how does sympathetic innervation get to the heart

presynaptic axons synapse in T1 or cercival PARAvertebral ganglia (sympathetic chain)

post synaptic axons pass into cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves to the SA and AN nodes and the myocardium

83

how does sympathetic innervation get to the lungs

presynaptic axons synapse in upper thoracic PARAvertebral ganglia

postsynaptic axons pass into cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves to the bronchiolar smooth muscle and mucous glands

84

how does sympathetic innervation get to the abdonminopelvic organs

presynaptic axons synapse in one of the prevertebral ganglia
- celiac ganglion of celiac plexus (foregut)
- aorticorenal ganglion (kidney)
- superior mesenteric ganglion of SM plexus (midgut)
- inferior mesenteric ganglion of IF plexus (hindgut &
pelvic/perineal organs)

85

how does sympathetic innervation reach the adrenal medulla

presynaptic axons pass through the aorticorenal ganglion
to synapse directly onto the adrenaline/noradrenaline
secreting cells of the adrenal medulla

86

how do presynaptic parasympathetic axons leave the CNS

via cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X (1973)

sacral spinal nerves

87

what is the path of parasympathetics

leave via CN 1973 and sacral spinal nerves

ciliary ganglion-> eye
parasympathetic ganglia in head-> lacrimal and salivary gland
vagus nerve-> organs of neck, chest and abdomen untill midgut
sacral spinal nerves-> hindgut, pelvis and perineum

88

what are the symptoms of horners and why do you get them

miosis (pin point pupils)
ptosis (LPS)
reduced sweating (anhydrosis)
increased warmth and redness (vasodilation)

impaired SYMPATHETIC innervation

89

what are the causes of horners syndrome

compression of cervical parts of the sympathetic trunk
-root of neck trauma
-carotid dissection
-IJV engorgement
-deep cervical node metastases
-pancoast tumour (lung apex)

90

what is paraesthesia

pins and needles

91

what is ataxia

loss of co-ordination/ balance/clumbsiness

92

what is sympathetic motor innervation

autonomic control (smooth muscle in vessels and hair follicles)

93

how do you test both the dermatome and myotome innervation

spinal cord reflexes

94

what is C1s dermatome

C1 HAS NO DERMATOME- is only motor

95

what is C2s dermatome

back of scalp and adams apple

96

what is C3s dermatome

back of neck and jugular notch

97

what is C4s dermatome

clavicle and shoulder tip

98

what is C5s dermatome

regimental badge area

99

what is C6s dermatome

lateral forearm to thumb

100

what is C7s dermatome

middle finger

101

what is C8s dermatome

little finger

102

what is T1s dermatome

medial forearm

103

what is t2s dermatome

medial arm and sternal angle

104

what is T4s dermatome

nipple

105

what is t10s dermatome

umbilicus

106

what is T12s dermatome

pubic symphysis

107

what is L1s dermatome

groin (hands in pockets)

108

what is L2s dermatome

anterior thigh

109

what is L3s dermatome

anterior knee (L3 knee)

110

what is L4s dermatome

medial malleolus

111

what is L5s dermatome

dorsum of the foot

112

what is s1s dermatome

heel

113

what is S2s dermatome

posterior knee

114

what is S3s dermatome

buttock

115

what is S4s dermatome

perineum

116

what is S5s dermatome

perianal skin

117

what might be affected if only the dermatome not myotome is affected

dorsal rootlets or root

118

what skin do the posterior rami supply

down the back and posterior neck

119

what rami form plexuses

anterior

120

what anterior rami do not form complexes

T2-T12

121

what are the named cutaneous innervation of the trunk

lower antereolateral trunk wall- iliohypogadtric and ilioinguinal nerves

upper anterolateral trunk wall is supplies by intercostal nerves

subcostal nerve

122

what is the difference between a spinal nerve and a names nerve

spinal contains axons from one spinal cord level

named contains from one of more spinal cord level supplying a particular area

123

what levels in the femoral nerve

L2,3,4

124

what is the named innervation of the neck

cervial plexus- anterolateral neck skin:

-lesser occipital C2 (skin posterior to external ear)
-great auricular nerve C2,3 (skin over mandible and external ear)
-transverse cervical C2,3 (anterior neck)
supraclavicular nerves C3,4 (shouldertip)


LITTLE
GOATS
TREAD
SOFTLY

125

what supplies the posterior neck and scalp skin

posterior rami of spinal nerves C2-8

126

what is the nerve point of the neck

when sensory nerves of cervical plexus pass from superficial to deep fascia at midpoint of posterior border of SCM

127

what level is the supraclavicular nerve

C3,4

128

what level is the axially nerve

C5,6

129

what level is the cutanrous branch of the musculocutaneous nerve

C5,6,7

130

what supplies the anatomical snuffbox

cutaneous branches of the radial nerve

131

what are T1 and T2 important

referred pain from myocardium

132

what level is the median nerve

C5,6,7,8 T1

133

what level is the ulnar nerve

C7,8, T1

134

what level is the radial nerve

C5,6,7,8, T1

135

what level is the subcostal nerve

T12

136

what level is the femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve

L1,2

137

what level is the ilioinguinal nerve

L1

138

what level is the obturator nerve

L2,3,4

139

what level is the femoral nerve

L2,3,4

140

what level is the saphenous nerve

(from femoral) L3,4

141

what level is the superficial fibular nerve

L4, L5, S1

142

what level is the tibial nerve

L4,5,S1,2,3 (goes into calcaneal nerves and medial and lateral plantar nerves)

143

what level is the posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

S1,2,3

144

what level is the iliohypogastric nerve

L1

145

what is the internal capsule

white matter, carries sensory and motor info information from cortex

146

what does the cervical plexus do (motor)

C1-C4
neck, postural and strap muscles
diaphragm C3,4,5

147

what does the brachial plexus do (motor)

C5-T1
muscles of upper limb
extrinsic back muscles that move the upper limb or scapula

148

what do T2-L3 motor axons supply

Postural back muscles (via posterior rami)
Intercostal muscles (via anterior rami)
Anterolateral abdominal wall muscles
(via thoracoabdominal, subcostal, iliohypogastric & ilioinguinal nerves)

149

what does the lumbosacral plexus do (motor)

motor axons supply muscles of the lower limb and sperineal skeletal muscles

150

how do you test myotome C5

shoulder abduction- deltoid

151

how do you test myotome C6

elbow flexion- biceps brachii

152

how do you test myotome C7

elbow extension - triceps brachii

153

how do you test myotome C8

finger flexion - flexor digitorum superficialis

154

how do you test myotome T1

finger abduction - dorsal interossi

155

how do you test myotome L3

knee extension - quadriceps femoris

156

how do you test myotome L2

hip felxion

157

how do you test myotome L4

ankle dorsiflexion - tibilais anterior

158

how do you test myotome L5

great toe extension- extensor hallucis longus

159

how do you test myotome S1

ankle plantar flexion - gastrocnemius

160

how do you test myotome S2

knee flexion- biceps femoris

161

what pathway does a AP go to create motor function

APs are generated by voluntary intention in the primary somatomotor cortex

AP conducted via UMN axons of the corticospinal tract

AP continues along axons to anterior horn of spinal cord

UMN synapse with LMN stimulating AP

AP continues along axons to spinal nerve

AP continues to either posterior ramus OR anterior ramus.

APs then reach the NMJ of the supplied muscle

162

what happens in a monosynaptic relfex

Occurs each time skeletal muscle is stretched - normal muscle “tone”

Muscle spindles initiate APs in the anterior rami axons
Sensory APs conducted to dorsal horn
Axons pass into anterior horn to synapse on LMNs
APs conducted via the LMN axons reach the NMJ
Muscle contracts

Reflex muscle contractions controlled by descending pathways

163

what happens in a UMN lesion

= spasticity- does not have reciprocal inhibition (thinks muscle shouldnt be stretching)

164

what happens in LMN lesions

flaccidity

165

what level is being tested in the biceps brachii reflex

C5,6

166

what level is being tested in the brachioradialis reflex

C6

167

what level is being tested in the triceps brachii reflex

C7

168

what level is being tested in the knee jerk

L3

169

what level is being tested in the ankle jerk

S1

170

why do you neuropathy in the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh

part of lumbar plexus under inguinal ligament and near ASIS. If iliopsoas hypertrophies and compresses this nerve

171

Muscles of facial expression motor innervation

CN VII

172

Muscles of mastication motor innervation

CN V3

173

Muscles of the tongue motor innervation

CN XII

174

Muscles of the soft palate motor innervation

CN X/pharyngeal plexus

175

Neck postural muscles motor innervation

Posterior rami of cervical spinal nerves

176

strap muscles motor innervation

cervical plexus C1-3

177

diaphragm motor innervation

phrenic nerve: C3,4,5 – from the cervical plexus

178

sternocleidomastoid and trapezius motor innervation

CN XI

179

muscles of the pharnyx motor innervation

mainly CN X

180

intrinsic muscles of the larynx motor innervation

CN X

181

intercostal muscles motor innervation

intercostal nerves

182

anterolateral abdominal wall muscles motor innervation

thoracoabdominal nerves

183

erector spinae and transversospinalis group motor innervation

post rami of spinal nerves

184

to what muscles does the axillary nerve (C5,6) provide motor innervation

deltoid and teres minor

185

to what muscles does the musculocutaneous (C5,6,7) nerve provide motor innervation

all ant compartment of arm
biceps brachii
brachialis
coracobrachialis

186

to what muscles does the median nerve (C5,6,7,8 T1) provide motor innervation

Muscles of anterior compartment of forearm:
-The pronator muscles (Teres & Quadratus)
-Flexor carpi radialis
-Palmaris longus
-Flexor digitorum superficialis
-Lateral half of flexor digitorum profundus
-Flexor pollicis longus
Muscles of the hand:
-Thenar muscles
-Lumbricals 1&2

187

to what muscles does the radial nerve (C5,6,7,8 T1) provide motor innervation

Muscle of posterior compartment of arm:
Triceps brachii

Muscles of posterior compartment of forearm:
Brachioradialis
Supinator
ALL the extensors of the carpus & digits
Abductor pollicis longus

188

to what muscles does the ulnar nerve (C7,8 T1) provide motor innervation

Muscles of anterior compartment of forearm:
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Medial half of flexor pollicis longus
Adductor pollicis

Muscles of the hand:
Hypothenar muscles, Lumbricals 3&4
& ALL the interossei (dorsal & palmar)

189

to what muscles does the femoral nerve (L2,3,4) provide motor innervation

Quadriceps femoris
Sartorius
Pectineus

190

to what muscles does the sciatic nerve (tibial division) (L4-S3) provide motor innervation

Muscles of posterior compartment of thigh:
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Long head of biceps femoris

Muscles of posterior compartment of leg:
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Plantaris
Popliteus
Tibialis posterior
Flexors of the digits

Muscles of the sole of the foot:
All intrinsic muscles of the sole of the foot

191

to what muscles does the obturator nerve (L2,3,4) provide motor innervation

All of the medial compartment of thigh
All adductors & gracilis

192

to what muscles does the sciatic nerve (fibular division) (L4-S2) provide motor innervation

Short head of biceps femoris

193

to what muscles does the superficial fibular nerve provide motor innervation

Muscles of the lateral compartment of leg:
Fibularis longus & brevis

194

to what muscles does the deep fibular nerve provide motor innervation

Muscles of the anterior compartment of leg:
Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus
Fibularis tertius

Muscles of the dorsum of the foot:
Extensor digitorum brevis (EDB)
Extensor hallucis brevis (EHB)