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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (194)
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1

how many cranial and spinal nerves

12 pairs of cranial

31 pairs of spinal
-8 cervical
-12 thoracic
-5 lumbar
-5 sacral
-1 coccygeal

2

how does the brain form

from the neural tube
at 4 weeks forms primary vesicles (pros, mes and rhomb -encephalons)
at 6-8 week form secondary vesicles

3

what does the telecephalon form

cerebral hemispheres

4

what does the diencephalon form

thalamus, hypothalamus

5

what does the mesencephalon form

midbrain

6

what does the metencephalon form

pons, cerebellum

7

what does the myelencephalon form

medulla oblongata

8

what makes up the brainstem

mid brain
pons
medulla oblongata

9

what makes up the diencephalon

thalamus + hypothalamus

10

what are the majority of neurones

multipolar with many dendrites and one axon

11

what is the soma of a neurone

contains the nucleus and cellular apparatus

12

what way is electric activity going in an axon

away from the cell body

13

what do glial cell do

support cells for CNS

14

what are the 4 types of glial cells

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells

15

what do astrocytes do

support, maintain BBB, environment homeostasis

(star shaped)

16

what is the role of the BBB

prevents things in blood directly accessing parenchyma of the brain

17

is there connective tissue in the CNS

no- why you need glial cells

18

what is the role of oligodendrocytes

produce myelin in the CNS (not in PNS) (wrap cell membranes around axons to increase the speed of conduction)

19

what is the node of ranvier

a gap between two myelinated axon areas- APs skip from one node to the next

20

what is the role of microglia

(hemopoietic (bone marrow) origin)
immune monitoring and antigen presentation (when activates take on appearance of macrophages)

21

what are ependymal cells

ciliated cuboidal/ culomnar epithelium that line the ventricles

22

what is a gyrus, sulcus and fissure

gyrus- ridge in cerebral cortex
sulcus- groove in cerebral cortex
fissure- deeper than gyrus

23

what fissures does the brain have

lateral (2) and longitudinal

24

what is grey matter

has lots of neurones, cell processes, synapses and support cells
(forms outside of brain)

25

what is white matter

(medullary centre)
axons and their support cells

26

how can you identify the dorsal and ventral horns of the grey matter in the spinal chord

grey matter on inside
dorsal horn extends back towards the posterior surface of the spinal chord
ventral horn is a distance from the anterior surface of the spinal chord

27

what does the calcarine suclus demarcate

primary visual cortex

28

what is the corpus callosum

largest connection between the left and right hemisphere
a band of white matter

29

what is the fornix

band of white matter that goes into the hypothalamus

30

where is the 4th ventricle

sits behind the pons