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Flashcards in Anatomy Updated Deck (103):
1

How many vertebrae in spine?

33

2

What does the intervertebral disc provide?

Movement, shock absorption, and spacing

3

The posterior aspects of the veterbrae form...

Facet joints

4

What are the function of spinal ligaments?

Connect vertebrae and prevent extreme motions that could cause injury

5

Which foramen does the spinal cord pass through?

Vertebral foramen

6

Which foramen does the spinal nerve pass through?

Intervertebral foramen

7

Number of cervical vertebrae

7

8

Number of thoracic vertebrae

12

9

Number of lumbar vertebrae

5

10

Number of sacral vertebrae

5

11

Number of coccyx vertebrae

4

12

A lordotic curve is...

concave towards posterior

13

A kyphotic curve is

Concave towards anterior

14

Lordotic curves are found in

Cervical and lumbar spine

15

Kyphotic curves are found in

Thoracic Spine

16

Sagittal plane curves serve three functions

Flexibility, balance, and shock absorption

17

Opening formed by the union of the posterior arch with the vertebral body

Vertebral foramen

18

Spinal cord and cauda equina pass through this

Vertebral foramen

19

Bony bridge between the vertebral body and the posterior arch

Pedicle

20

Connection between anterior and posterior columns of spine

Pedicle

21

Bony protrusion on either side of the posterior arch of the vertebra, originating from junction of lamina and pedicle

Transverse Process

22

The portion of the posterior arch of the vertebra between the transverse processes and the spinous process

Lamina

23

Completes the bony ring protecting the spinal cord and cauda equina

Lamina

24

Bony protrusion on the caudal (toward feet) aspect of the vertebra that articulates with the vertebra below

Inferior articular process

25

Joins with the superior articular process of the vertebra below to form a facet joint

Inferior articular process

26

Joins with the inferior articular process of the vertebra above to form a facet joint

Superior articular process

27

The cervical spine allows.....

flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation

28

Cervical spine is discussed in two segments...

C1, C2 C3-C7

29

These cervical spine vertebrae are uniquely shaped

Upper cervical

30

These cervical spine vertebrae are consistent in appearance

Lower cervical

31

This vertebrae is known as the atlas

C1

32

Which vertebrae articulates with the occiput

C1/Atlas

33

Described as a ring of bone

Atlas/C1

34

This vertebrae is known as axis

C2

35

C2 has a bony process called the dens which is also known as

odontoid process

36

The dens of C_ extends cranially into the ring of C_

C2 into C1

37

This is a pivot point around which C1 can rotate

Dens

38

The rotation of C1 on C2 makes up __% of the rotation in the cervical spine

50%

39

Which are the only vertebrae that lack a disc?

C1 and C2

40

The spinous processes of the cervical spine are ______

Bifid

41

These three structures make the cervical vertebrae different from the rest of the spine

Lateral mass, transverse foramina, and uncinate process

42

The _____ is made up of the superior and inferior articular processes and the transverse process

Lateral mass

43

This is a column of bone on either side of the vertebral body that provides additional stability for the head

Lateral mass

44

These are openings in the transverse processes of the cervical spine through which the vertebral arteries travel

Transverse foramen

45

This is a lip of bone on the lateral aspect of the vertebral body in the cervical spine

Uncinate process

46

The joints between the thoracic vertebrae and the ribs

Costal facets

47

The region of the lamina between the superior and inferior articular processes

Pars interarticularis

48

The forward displacement of one vertebra over another

Spondylolisthesis

49

Deformities in the pars can lead to

Spondylolisthesis

50

What are the two components of the intervertebral disc

annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus

51

Tough outer layer of woven cartilage fibers

Annulus

52

The annulus is _____ anteriorly due to _____ _____

Thicket, higher loads

53

Inner portion of disc that is more gelatinous and has a higher water content

Nucleus

54

Where the cartilaginous fibers of the disc anchor

Cartilaginous endplate

55

What percent of the overall height of the spine does the disc constitute

25%

56

Three main functions of disc

Spacer, distribute load, accommodate movement

57

The soft makeup of the discs allows them to assist in absorbing and distributing _____ forces that the spine experiences on daily basis

Axial

58

Five main ligament structures that prevent extremes of motion that could damage spine and spinal cord

ALL, PLL, supraspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament

59

Ligament that runs along the anterior surface of VBs from occiput to sacrum - resists excessive extension

ALL

60

Runs along posterior surface of VBs beginning at occiput and extending to sacrum, resists excessive extensions

PLL

61

Ligament that runs along the tip of each spinous process from C7 to sacrum - resists excessive flexion

supraspinous ligament

62

Ligament that connects the lamina of adjacent vertebrae

Ligament flavum

63

Ligament that connects the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae

Interspinous ligament

64

Continous spinal ligaments

ALL, PLL, supraspinous ligaments

65

Segmental spinous ligaments

Ligamentum flavum and interspinous ligaments

66

Represents supraspinous ligament in cervical spine

Nuchal ligament (connects the occiput and spinous processes of C1 to C7)

67

In the cervical spine the facets are oriented in the ____ plane tilted ____ at approximately ___ degrees to the axial plane

axial, cranially, 45 degrees

68

What does the axial orientation of cervical facets allow

Rotation, lateral bending, flexion/extension

69

In the thoracic spine, the facets are oriented in the ____ plane and positioned at an angle, generally __ degrees, to the axial plane

front plane, 60 degrees

70

The angled orientation of the thoracic facets resists ______

rotation

71

In the lumbar spine, the facets are oriented in the _____ plane at an angle approximately ____ to the frontal plane

Sagitall, 45 degrees

72

The sagittal plane orientation of the lumbar facets resists ______ but allows ____ ___ and ___ ___

Rotation, lateral bending, flexion/extension

73

Unlike the facets in the cervical and thoracic spine, the facets in the lumbar spine are _____

Curved (superior articular processes slightly concave, inferior articular processes slightly convex)

74

What level does the spinal cord extend to?

L1

75

The spinal cord tapers to a cone shape called the ____ ____ as it transitions from the spinal cord to the ____ _____

conus medullaris, cauda equina

76

A bundle of nerve elements contained within a membranous sack

Cauda equina

77

The three membranes of the spinal cord are

dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater (collectively known as meninges)

78

Transmit signals to specific areas of the body

Spinal nerves

79

The two nerve roots that exit the spinal cord are called

Dorsal and ventral nerve root

80

Transmits sensory information

Dorsal nerve root

81

Transmits motor information

Ventral nerve root

82

Number of spinal nerve pairs

31

83

Number of cervical spine nerve pairs

8

84

Number of thoracic nerve pairs

12

85

Number of Lumbar nerve pairs

5

86

Number of sacral nerve pairs

5

87

Number of coccygeal nerve pairs

1

88

______ spinal nerves are named for the vertebrae they exit above

Cervical

89

Where does the C8 spinal nerve exit the spine?

Between C7 and T1

90

All spinal nerves except for cervical are named for the vertebrae they exit ______

Below

91

Individual spinal nerves innervate specific regions of skin called ________

Dermatomes

92

____ are used to diagnose the level of spinal injury

Dermatomes

93

The two branches of a spinal nerve after exiting foramen

Dorsal ramus and ventral ramus

94

________ symptoms occur in a specific region, usually corresponding to a dermatome.

Radicular

95

– Numbness – Tingling – Weakness – Paresthesia (feeling of pins and needles)

Radicular symptom

96

These symptoms usually occur over a larger general area, often on both sides of the body.

Myelopathic symptoms

97

– Gait disturbances – Bowel and bladder dysfunction – Generalized weakness

Myelopathic symptoms

98

Exit aorta at every level

Segmental artery

99

The vena cava is formed by the confluence of the...

Iliac veins

100

Which arteries wrap around the vertebral body and supply the vertebrae and spinal cord with blood

Segmental arteries

101

These vessels carry blood to and from the head

Carotid artery and jugular vein

102

In the cervical spine, the vertebral arteries branch off the aorta via the...

Subclavian arteries

103

Supply blood to the base of the brain

Subclavian artery