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Flashcards in Applied Neuropharmacology Deck (26)
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1

Name examples of neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine
Monoamines
Amino acids
Purines
Neuropeptides
NO

2

What are the physiological functions affected by dopamine?

Vomiting
Voluntary movement
Emotions

3

Where is dopamine distributed within the brain?

Brainstem
Basal ganglia
Limbic system and frontel cortex

4

How is dopamine linked to Parkinson's disease?

Degeneration of dopamine cells in substantia nigra leading to dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia

5

What is the synthesis line for dopamine?

Glycine, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine

6

What is the basic route of dopamine metabolic breakdown?

Dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/3-methoxytryptamine, homovanillic acid

7

What are the 2 subgroups of dopaminergic drugs?

Dopamine precursor
Dopamine agonists

8

What is the main dopamine precursor drug?

Levodopa

9

What are the main dopamine agonist drugs?

Bromocriptine
Ropinirole
Pramipexole
Apomorphine

10

Name the main subgroups of enzyme inhibitors?

Peripheral AAAD inhibitors
MOAB inhibitors
COMT inhibitors

11

What are some examples of peripheral AAAD inhibitors?

Carbidopa
Benserazide

12

What is the function a peripheral AAAD inhibitor?

Reduces peripheral side effects of levodopa, allows greater proportion of dose to reach CNS

13

Name an example of an MOAB inhibitor?

Selegiline

14

Name an example of a COMT inhibitor?

Entacapone

15

What is the function of a COMT inhibitor?

Reduces metabolism of dopamine, increasing the effectiveness of levodopa

16

What is the particular disadvantage associated with enzyme inhibitors?

Can have no effect on synthetic dopamine agonists

17

What are the advantages of dopamine antagonists?

Improve nausea, vomiting and psychosis

18

What are the disadvantages of dopamine antagonists?

Worsen or cause Parkinson's and rigidity and bradykinesia in the limbs

19

What is the clinical name given to the 'vomiting centre'

Area postrema

20

Where is the area postrema located?

Medulla (functionally outside the brain blood barrier)

21

What are the advantages of domperidone?

Does not cross brain blood barrier
No antipsychotic properties
Relatively safe to use on Parkinson's

22

What is domperidone?

Dopamine antagonist and anti emetic

23

What is dyskinesia?

Abnormal involuntary movements

24

What is the function of noradrenaline?

Reuptake blockers

25

What is one of the main neurological benefits of GABA?

Anti-epileptic
Anti-anxiety properties

26

What are some of the neurological uses of serotonin; 5-HT?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are antidepressants
Triptans used for migraines