APS 123 Flashcards Preview

Population & Community Ecology 1 > APS 123 > Flashcards

Flashcards in APS 123 Deck (61)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define Community

All of the individuals of all the species that inhabit a particular geographic are

2

Organismal ecology concerns...

Behavioural, Physiological and Morphological traits and the mediate interactions:
among individuals, between species and with the environment

3

What is Semelparity?

Big bang reproduction
Large number of offspring are produced in a reproductive event, after which the individual dies.

4

What is Iteroparity?

When organisms produce several eggs/offspring during repeated reproductive strategies

5

What are Empheral species?

When desert plants and animals lie dormant.
Reproduce in the occasional years that the conditions are ok.
Most complete life cycles in less than 8 weeks.

6

What is Ro (little o)

the net reproduction rate
(mean number of offspring per female over her life time)

7

Elements of the Leslie Matrix

Sx, Mx, Fx

8

What do you get out of the Leslie Matrix

µ= population growth rate and the Stable age distribution

9

3 factors increasing population growth:

Increased survival
Increased reproduction
Decreased generation time

10

r=

intrinsic rate of increase
=births-deaths

11

What is density dependence?

(Negative Feedback)
When insufficient resources may reduce per capita birth rate.

12

Carrying capacity (K) determined by...

...energy/resource limitations
Eg availability of nesting sites, roosting sites

13

Sea otters as an example of exponential growth..

reintroduced in 1960s, 30 fold increase in 30 years
100,000 population

14

Carrying capacity (K) rules?

K of a habitat is the maximum stable population size that can be supported
As density increases, per capita resources decline.... bird rates decline and death rates increase.

15

Assumptions of the logistic model?

Density dependence is linear
Population approaches K smoothly
K is constant

16

r & K are...

... population level parameters (selection does not act on r&k)

17

Gause's theory

Competition exclusion principle:
No 2 species can share the same resource
No 2 species can occupy the same niche
2 species cannot co exist when they have identical needs of a limited resource.

18

Competition theory

Population growth rate= exponential growth - intraspecific competition- interspecific competition

19

Equation for a line
Intraspecific=
Interspecific=

Intraspecific= intercept (K)
Interspecific= gradient (adjustment of K) ALPHA

20

How to spot coexistence on a graph

Isoclines cross, when intra specific effects are stronger (K's inside) than inter-specific effects.
(Exclusion=isoclines do not cross)

21

Categories of predation

Overgrowth, Chemical, Territorial, Encounter, Exploitation, Consumptive

22

2 types of competition

Scramble- exploitation, consumption
Contest- Interference, encounter

23

Define pre-emptive

Using space (depleting space)

24

MacArthurs 3 rules

No species can coexist unless they....
different resources
same resources in different places
same resources at different times

25

Components of the optimisation theory

Objective (to maximise profitability)
Currency (eg energy/time)
Constraints (Eg cant search whilst handling)

26

What is the contingency model of foraging?

Add items until the profit of new items is less than the average cost of searching and handling items currently in the diet.

27

What is the functional response?

How predator consumption varies with prey density. Type 1,2,3

28

Which type demonstrates negative feedback?

Type 3

29

Which one demonstrates inverse density dependence?

Type 2

30

Why might the consumption plateau? (type 2)

Satiation (full)`