Flashcards in Aristotle Deck (37)
what are Aristotle's 4 causes used for?
to explain why things exist as they do
what is the material cause?
the matter or substance from which something is made
what is the formal cause?
what gives the matter its 'form' or 'structure'
what is the efficient cause?
the cause of an object or thing existing
what is the final cause?
the reason why something is the way it is
what does aristotle emphasise?
the value of studying the physical world = empirical study
what does aristotle reject about plato?
his theory of forms because they are outside of the world and only known through the soul/mind
other than the theory of forms, what does aristotle reject?
dualism and plato's understanding of the soul
what/who did aristotle take the stance of?
what is the prime mover?
something which causes the motion and change of the universe without being moved
is the prime mover eternal?
what must something that is eternal be?
necessarily good - because anything that is limited or changing is bad
what does the PM exist by?
what is the PM the final cause of?
what is the prime mover linked with?
some roles we would understand god to have
how is the prime mover related to the universe?
as a leader
what doesn't the prime mover have and why?
a physical body as thing changes and the PM cannot change
what does aristotle argue that the PM has?
a 'spiritual body' that is immaterial
what is the PM a form of itself?
what is everything that exists in a permanent state of?
movement or motion
what does motion mean?
what does it mean if something can change?
then it exists in one 'actual' state, it has the 'potential' to become another
what was the 1st of the four things aristotle found?
the physical world is constantly in motion and change
what was the 2nd thing aristotle found?
the plants seem to be moving eternally
what was the 3rd thing aristotle found?
change or motion is always caused by something
what was the 4th thing aristotle found?
objects in the world are in a state of potentiality or actuality
what did aristotle conclude from the 4 things he found?
there exists something that causes the change without being moved and this thing is eternal
what did aristotle say there had to be a to start of the process of motion?
a being (PM) that has reached it's full evaluation
what is the relationship between the PM and the universe? WEAKNESS
why is it a problem that aristotle's PM is transcendent?
it means it cannot interact in the universe
what is the idea that the PM causes the universe and it's events in it through merely 'thinking'? WEAKNESS
vague and unclear
what does the PM come across as? WEAKNESS
unloving, as it plays no part in our lives - would the universe really be like that?
what did Betrand Russell say which counteracts the idea of the final cause?
is there really a final cause to the universe? does there have to be a cause, can't it just be there?
what did aristotle's ideas have a lot of influence in?
the development of christian philosophy and the arguments for the existence of god
who are there a lot of similarities between?
the prime mover and god, some even say that the prime moved IS god
what did the prime mover theory influence?
medieval thinking about god