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Flashcards in Aristotle Deck (37)
0

what are Aristotle's 4 causes used for?

to explain why things exist as they do

1

what is the material cause?

the matter or substance from which something is made

2

what is the formal cause?

what gives the matter its 'form' or 'structure'

3

what is the efficient cause?

the cause of an object or thing existing

4

what is the final cause?

the reason why something is the way it is

5

what does aristotle emphasise?

the value of studying the physical world = empirical study

6

what does aristotle reject about plato?

his theory of forms because they are outside of the world and only known through the soul/mind

7

other than the theory of forms, what does aristotle reject?

dualism and plato's understanding of the soul

8

what/who did aristotle take the stance of?

a materialist

9

what is the prime mover?

something which causes the motion and change of the universe without being moved

10

is the prime mover eternal?

yes

11

what must something that is eternal be?

necessarily good - because anything that is limited or changing is bad

12

what does the PM exist by?

necessity

13

what is the PM the final cause of?

everything

14

what is the prime mover linked with?

some roles we would understand god to have

15

how is the prime mover related to the universe?

as a leader

16

what doesn't the prime mover have and why?

a physical body as thing changes and the PM cannot change

17

what does aristotle argue that the PM has?

a 'spiritual body' that is immaterial

18

what is the PM a form of itself?

intelligence

19

what is everything that exists in a permanent state of?

movement or motion

20

what does motion mean?

change

21

what does it mean if something can change?

then it exists in one 'actual' state, it has the 'potential' to become another

22

what was the 1st of the four things aristotle found?

the physical world is constantly in motion and change

23

what was the 2nd thing aristotle found?

the plants seem to be moving eternally

24

what was the 3rd thing aristotle found?

change or motion is always caused by something

25

what was the 4th thing aristotle found?

objects in the world are in a state of potentiality or actuality

26

what did aristotle conclude from the 4 things he found?

there exists something that causes the change without being moved and this thing is eternal

27

what did aristotle say there had to be a to start of the process of motion?

a being (PM) that has reached it's full evaluation

28

what is the relationship between the PM and the universe? WEAKNESS

unclear

29

why is it a problem that aristotle's PM is transcendent?

it means it cannot interact in the universe

30

what is the idea that the PM causes the universe and it's events in it through merely 'thinking'? WEAKNESS

vague and unclear

31

what does the PM come across as? WEAKNESS

unloving, as it plays no part in our lives - would the universe really be like that?

32

what did Betrand Russell say which counteracts the idea of the final cause?

is there really a final cause to the universe? does there have to be a cause, can't it just be there?

33

what did aristotle's ideas have a lot of influence in?

the development of christian philosophy and the arguments for the existence of god

34

who are there a lot of similarities between?

the prime mover and god, some even say that the prime moved IS god

35

what did the prime mover theory influence?

medieval thinking about god

36

where is philosophy of aristotle used?

in roman catholic churches