Associated Clinical Sciences IG Flashcards Preview

NBCE Part II/III > Associated Clinical Sciences IG > Flashcards

Flashcards in Associated Clinical Sciences IG Deck (347):
1

Infection of the fallopian tubes causing inflammation

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

2

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is most commonly caused by

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia

3

Gonorrhea facts

- Gram NEG Diplococcus
- Chocolate agar plate
- Green discharge
- MC joint affect = KNEE

"Its negative to have Gonorrhea"

4

Causative organism for Reiter's Disease

Chlamydia

** men asymptomatic; women PID / infertility **

5

Syphilis facts

- organism: Treponema Pallidum
- placenta transmission
- Hutchinson's Triad
- 3 stages

6

What is Hutchinson's Triad and what is it associated with?

Syphilis

1) Interstitial Keratitis
2) Notched Permanent Incisors
3) CN VIII deafness

7

What are the 3 stages of Syphilis?

1: Hard, pain-less chancre
2: Maculopapular rash, Condylomata LATA, alopecia
3: Tabes dorsalis (posterior columns = slappage gate); Aortic Valve affected

8

Trichimoniasis

Green/yellow, frothy, foul smelling discharge

9

Moniliasis

aka Candidiasis

- white cottage cheese
- thrush
- fungus/yeast

10

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

- organism: Chlamydia

11

Granuloma Inguinale

Red, beefy lesions

12

Genital Herpes

- organism: Virus HSV-2
- VESICLES around MOUTH
- stress or decreased immunity can cause eruption

13

Genital Warts

aka: Condylomata ACCUMINATA !!!!

- organism: HPV (human papilloma virus)
- cauliflower erosions
- linked to cervical cancer

14

Chancroid

- organism: Hemophilus Ducreyi
- PAINFUL: du-CRY and soft
- Frei Test!

15

AIDS

- organism: HIV (retrovirus)
- cause opportunistic infections (pneumocystis carinii)
- Lab tests:
1. ELISA - screening test (RNA)
2. Western Blot - most accurate (proteins)

16

Molluscum Contagiosum

Dome shaped, pearly white papule

17

Nodule

> 0.5cm = hard, raised lesion

18

Bulla

> 0.5cm = fluid filled lesion --> Phemphigus (blister)

19

Leukoplakia

precancerous lesion

20

Acne Rosacea

exacerbated by sunlight, caffeine, alcohol on face

21

Acne Vulgaris

sebaceous glands - black/white heads (comedones)

22

Actinic Lentigo

sun spot / liver spot

23

Aphthous Stomatitis

ulcer in mouth

24

Carbuncle

carload of furuncles (staf infection)

25

Comedone

closed = white head; open = black head

26

Epidermal Cyst

non tender, epidermal cyst/sack

27

Erysipelas

- organism: Beta Hemolytic STREP
- red fiery, advancing lesion
- elevated ASO titer

28

Erythema Nodosum

- strep association
- bilateral red tender nodules (usually lower extremities)

29

Excoriation

surface skin injury

30

Fungal / Mycotic Infections

DX: Woods lamp + Tinea = Fungus

- corpus = body
- pedis = athletes foot
- cruris = jock itch
- capitus = scalp

31

Tinea Versicolor

multiple hypo-pigmented, painless lesions that wont tan

32

Furuncle

staph infected hair follicle

** man shaving his face **

33

Herpes Simplex

- HSV infection
- small vesicles "cold sores" on the MOUTH or genitals
- reactivated during delivery
- Tzank Test

34

Herpes Zoster

aka Shingles

- location - DRG (dorsal root ganglion)
- blister like lesions that follow the dermatome and NEVER cross midline

35

Ichthyosis

aka Fish Skin

- increased keratinization

36

Impetigo

- crusty lesions on corner of mouth
- children
- staph or STREP

37

Intertrigo

red areas caused by: Moisture, Friction, Warmth

38

Keloid

scar

39

Lichenification

Rough and Thick skin due to CHRONIC DERMATITIS (constantly scratching)

40

Lichen Planus

SCALES and whitish lines or puncta

41

Nummular Eczema

coin shaped rash

42

Paronychia

red inflammation around nail bed

43

Pediculosis

Lice

44

Pemphigus Vulgaris

- life threatening
- multiple bulla blisters all over skin

45

Pityriasis Rosea

- herald patch

46

Psoriasis

red amarynth flakey lesions

47

Scabies

- caused by mites
- grouped vesicles
- line furrows

** guy scratching himself **

48

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Dandruff / Cradle Cap (newborns)

49

Urticaria

Hives / Wheals all over body

50

Vitiligo

autoimmune depigmentation AFTER development!!

51

Albinism

depigmentation at BIRTH

52

Yeast Infections

Candida Albicans
Oral = thrush (1st sign of HIV patient)

53

Basal Cell skin cx

MC skin cx

54

Squamous Cell skin cx

irregular and flaky (malignant)

55

Melanoma

most invasive; multicolored (changes colors)

56

Actinic Keratosis

flakey, scaley lesion; precursor to squamos cell carcinoma

57

Antisocial PD

acts out conflict WITHOUT REMORSE

58

Compulsive PD

act of doing SOMETHING to relieve the stress; ritualistic
ex: handwashing

59

Histrionic PD

aka Hysterical

Attention seeking

60

Narcissism PD

regards no one else as important except self

61

Paranoid PD

unfounded beliefs that others want to harm him

62

Passive Aggressive PD

argumentative

63

Schizoid

- Introverted & Withdrawn
- Emotionally distant + avoids social interaction
- Delusions + hallucinations = schizophrenia

64

Defense Mechanisms

unconscious strategies utilized to cope with reality

65

Denial

MC in alcoholics

66

Projection

act of assigning a feeling or belief to another person, group, or to the outside world

ex: blaming someone else for past failure

67

Rationalization

make excuses; justifying their behavior

68

Reaction Formation

exaggerated form of an opposite behavior

ex: gay guy goes to anti-gay rally

69

Regression

response to stress is to act immature

70

Repression

exclude from consciousness

ex: childabuse

71

Transference

redirecting ones feelings (good or bad) from past from one person to another

ex: you remind me of my son, so I will treat you better

72

Sublimation

channeling negative energy into something acceptable

ex: imagining dustin's face on the punching bag and kicking it

73

Anxiety Disorders

- Anxiety
- Panic Disorder (repeated anxiety attacks)
- Obsessive Compulsive (obsessive = thoughts; compulsive = ritualistic action)
- Phobic

74

Somatization Disorder

- Chronic, cyclic multiple somatic complaints not due to a physical illness
- Patient seeks treatment and changes life
- More concerned with discomfort than disease

75

Hypochondriasis

- belief / fear of a non-existent disease

76

Conversion Hysteria

aka Conversion Reaction !!!!

- psychological conflict causes physical dysfunction
- rapidly appears after trauma
- involuntary

ex: paralysis, deafness post abuse

77

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Patient UNable to admit she is exaggerating; eating disorder

78

Affective Disorder

mood fluctuations

79

Alcoholism

delirium tremens + folate deficiency

80

Anorexia Nervosa

amenorrhea

81

Bipolar Affective Disorder

aka Manic Depressive

- manic 1st, then depression phase

82

Bulimia Nervosa

binge then purge

83

Catatonia

muscle inhibition

84

Dysthymic Disorder

mild chronic depression
"cloud over their head"

85

Hallucinations

perception issue

86

Involutional Melancholia

depression associated with menopause

87

Schizophrenia

delusions + hallucinations

88

Transvestite

cross dressing

89

Aversion

treatment for alcoholics by associating drinking with unpleasant consequences

90

Beck Test

aka Beck Depression Inventory

measures severity of depression

91

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov's Dogs -- salivation association

92

Operant Conditioning

Skinner -- positive / negative consequences reinforce action

93

Negative Reinforcement

a person's action increases the action

ex: picking up a crying baby

94

Flooding

showing them something repeatedly to treat phobias

ex: afraid of clowns

95

Mini Mental State Exame MMSE

aka Folstein Test

- test for cognitive impairment
- dementia screening

96

Modeling

imitation

97

Rorschach Test

inkblot images

98

Stanford Binet Test

IQ test

99

Wechsler Scale

IQ test

100

Freud

Dream analysis as a route to the unconscious mind

ID = basic instincts
EGO = reality / control
SUPEREGO = guilt / consciousness

101

Jung

collective unconscious of man

102

Maslow

Hierarch of human needs
5 levels with the highest being self actualization

103

Pavlov

Classical Conditioning

104

Skinner

Operant Conditioning

105

Acetaminophen

liver damage - hepatotoxic

106

Activated Charcoal

Absorbent;
Binds poison and prevents absorption by the GI tract

107

Acyclovir

Herpes

108

Aflatoxins

Aspergillus

109

Allopurinol

decreases xanthine oxidase activity; treats chronic gout

110

Aluminum toxitity

kidney / lung issues

111

Amphetamine

treat ADHD

112

Arsenic

odor of garlic

113

Barbiturates

sleeping pills --> respiratory depression

114

Benzodiazepine

muscle relaxant

115

Beta Blockers

treats hypertension and arrhythmias

116

Beta 2 Adrenergic Drug

treats asthma

117

Carbon monoxide

cherry red lips

118

Carbon tetrachloride

sweet smell formerly used in fire extinguishers

119

Chloral Hydrate

short term insomnia treatment

120

Chloroform

analgesic; toxic

121

Chlorpromazine

treat schizophrenia

122

Cholinesterase Inhibitor

increases ACh effectiveness

123

Cocaine

narcotic

124

colchicine

treat acute symptomatic gout!

125

Cyanide

affects CNS and heart

126

Dicumerol

anticoagulant medication

127

Digitalis

increase cardiac contractility

128

EDTA

remove lead from blood chelation therapy

129

Emetic

makes you vomit

130

Epinephrine

treats anaphylactic shock

131

Feldene

treats arthritis RA / OA

132

Gastric lavage

stomach pump

133

Haldol

treats psychotic disorders + Tourette's

134

Hallucinogenic drugs

mushrooms + nutmeg

135

Lead poisoning

blue gums; basophilic stippling of the RBCs

136

Lithium

treat bipolar disorder

137

Lye

strong alkaloid; chemical in soaps and cleaners

138

Mercury Toxicity

S/S: peripheral neuropathies, brain damage, kidney and lung problems

139

Methanol

Wood alcohol; CNS depressant

140

Nitroglycerine

Treats angina in people with coronary artery disease

141

Norvase

Calcium channel blocker to treat hypertension

142

Phenaphen

treats pain but NOT inflammation

143

NSAID

non steroid anti inflammatory

144

Prozac

treats depression

145

Reserpine

antipsychotic and anti-hypertensive drug

146

Salicylates

Aspirin -- blood thinners...can result in deafness, bleeding, and Reye's Syndrome!!

147

Seconal

barbiturate that is a depressant

148

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor -- treats depression

149

Strychnine

pesticide

150

Syrup of Ipecac

Causes vomiting
"Syrup of Ipe-YAK"

151

Tranquilizers

predisposes elderly to falls

152

Tricyclic

Anti-depressant....reuptake inhibitor

153

Warfarin / Coumadin

anti-coagulant -- can cause internal bleeding
DO NOT GIVE TO SOMEONE WHO IS DEF IN VIT K

154

Pneumoconiosis

chronic respiratory disease

155

Asbestosis

leads to mesothelioma

156

Siderosis

iron dust

157

Anthracosis

coal dust

158

Byssinosis

cotton dust (textile workers)

159

Silicosis

glass / sand / stone
(pottery...granite counter tops)

160

Alpha Fetoprotein

measured in pregnant moms
INCREASE = neural tube defects
DECREASED = downs syndrome

161

Amenorrhea

no menses when it is expected
Correlates with lactation

162

Amniocentesis

done for fetal health

163

Breast Milk

deficient in Vit D + Iron

164

Colostrum

first breast milk

165

Dilation of cervix

1st stage of labor

166

Dysmenorrhea

painful menses..Causes:
Primary - increased prostaglandin
Secondary - pathology (endometriosis)

167

Dystocia

abnormal, painful or prolonged labor

168

Effacement

thinning of cervix

169

Engagment

decent of the fetal skull to the level of the ischial spines

170

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

171

Laparoscopy

MC procedure for endometriosis

172

Lightening

baby drops into pelvis 2 weeks before delivery and causes abdominal pain

173

Linea nigra

dark streak down midline of tummy during pregnancy

174

Lochia

vaginal discharge after delivery
Red --> Yellow --> White

175

Mittelschmerz

pain in abdomen during OVULATION

176

Multiparous

more than one delivery of viable infant

177

Nulliparous

Never given girth to a viable infant

178

Primpara

first pregnancy with a viable infant

179

Post partum infection

most commonly from Csection - MC complication of childbirth

180

Puerperium

period of time after the delivery of the placenta to the complete involution of the organs; infection during this time is referred to as PUERPERAL SEPSIS

181

Quickening

1st perception by the mother of fetal life

182

Station

ID's the fetal position (cm) in relation to the spines of the ischium

183

Pregnancy Signs

Menses 3 weeks late and presence of fetal heartbeat (best)!!!

184

Chadwick's sign

Bluish discoloration of the vagina

185

Goodell's sign

softening of the tip of the cervix

186

Hegar's sign

softening of the isthmus of the uterus

187

Piskacek's sign

enlargement of the uterus near the uterine tube over the site of implantation

188

Atonic uterus

MC reason for post partum hemorrhage

189

Braxton Hick's

Early uterine contractions (oxytocin) w/o cervical changes

190

Cervix

MC malignancy of the female genital tract

191

Chloasma / Melasma

brown hyper pigmentation of the face/mask of pregnancy

192

Choriocarcinoma

placenta malignancy due to abnormal epithelium

193

Cystocele

herniation of the urinary bladder into the vagina

194

Eclampsia

toxemia of pregnancy caused by hypertension leading to convulsions and death

195

Ectopic pregnancy

the fertilized egg most commonly implants in one of the fallopian tubes. Symptoms:
- vaginal bleeding
- lower abdominal pain
- cramping on one side of the pelvis

196

Endometriosis

abnormal endometrial tissue outside teh uterus...can lead to infertility

197

Endometritis

MC type of post partum infection

198

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

small, palpable, tender, bilateral nodules
worse with ovulation and caffeine intake!!

199

Hydatidiform Mole

benign tissue in placenta...may become malignant...high HCG

200

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

hormonal imbalance causes numerous cysts

201

Pre-eclampsia

toxemia of pregnancy; HEP:
Hypertension
Edema
Proteinuria
....basically nephrotic syndrome during pregnancy

202

Rectocele

herniation of the rectum into the vagina

203

FSH

maturation of follicle

204

HCG

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
promotes corpus leuteum health
pregnancy test

205

LH

ovulation

206

Oxytocin

uterine contractions + milk let down (ejection)

207

Prolactin

milk production

208

Labor Stages

1: Dilation = contraction --> full dilation; longest stage
--- Bloody Show = release of mucous plug during the FIRST stage of labor
2: Expulsion: full dilation to baby delivery
3: Placental Delivery: baby delivery to placenta delivery (most dangerous to mom)
4: Stabilization: uterus expels any remains

209

Praevia

low lying placenta with partial internal os obstruction

210

Abruptio

Normally placed placenta, detatches from site

211

Accreta

Placenta does not separate after delivery (most detrimental to mom)

212

Battledore Placenta

umbilical cord attached at margin of placenta...insignificant

213

Pap Smear Classification

I Normal
II Atypical / Benign
III Dysplasia / Pre-canc
IV In Situ / Non-invasive Carcinoma
V Malignancy / Invasive

214

First teeth

6-8 months

215

First food

6 months

216

Crawling

9 months

217

Assisted Walking

10-14 months

218

Unassisted Walking

12-18 months

219

Talking

10-15 words at 18 months

220

Umbilical Cord falls off

post 7-10 days

221

Posterior fontanelle closes at

3 months

222

Anterior fontanelle closes at

2 years

223

Depressed fontanelle

Dehydration

224

Bulging fontanelle

intracranial pressure (crying a lot)

225

APGAR

Appearance: color
Pulse: heart rate
Grimace: muscle tone
Activity: reflex
Respiration:

NEVER BIRTHWEIGHT

1min, 5 min

226

Lanugo

fuzzy hair on baby skin

227

Meconium

1st poop

228

Mongolian spots

bluish, ill defined areas of skin in the butt/scrotum area

229

Premature Infant

born 26th-37th week

230

Vernix Caseosa

white cheesy subsnatce on baby's skin at birth

231

Asperger's

mild autism

232

Botulism

honey, corn syrup, molassess food poisoning in newborn

233

Caput Succedeum

baby's head is unusual shape...insignfiicant

234

Enuresis

bedwetting (adjust sacrum, 2,3,4)

235

Cradle Cap

baby acne (seborrheic dermatitis)

236

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

hemolytic anemia in fetus by transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies to fetal RBCs
Ex: mom rh-, dad rh+

237

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

delayed growth, microcephaly retardation

238

Kwashiokor

protein malnutrition (ascites)...big belly

239

Leukemia

MC cancer in kids and in downs syndrome

240

Marasmus

general malnutrition (super skinny)

241

Miliaria

prickly heat

242

PKU = phenylketonuria

genetic disorder which creates the enzyme phenlalanine nonfunctional

243

Prolapsed cord

fetal suffocation

244

Vitamin K in newborns

prevents hemorrhage

245

Rubella

aka German Measles
- 3 days
- rash + mild fever
- most dangerous to fetus in 1st trimester = birth defects

246

Rubeola

- 2 weeks
- rash + fever
- KOPLIC SPOTS + runny nose (coryza) = prodromal stage
- bronchopneumonia

247

Chicken Pox

vesicles
herpes virus

248

Mumps

parotid gland infection --> orchitis

249

Croup

barking cough...worst at night

250

Pertussis

aka Whooping Cough
- Bordetella Pertussis
- Most dangerous to infants under 1 year and fatalities are due to bronchopneumonia
- Signs: cough + inspiratory whoop + vomiting

251

Diphtheria

gray pseudomembrane on throat
Schick Test

252

Scarlet Fever

Group A Strep Pyogenes
Strawberry Tongue
ASO titer

253

Roseola Infantum

-

254

Rooting Reflex

- most basic primitive reflex
- stroking corner of mouth -- food

255

Sucking Reflex

stimulates oxytocin release

256

Tonic Neck Reflex

aka Fencer's
Doctor rotates head of a supine baby and the ipsilateral arm and leg extended while the contralateral arm and leg flex

257

Moro Reflex

aka Startle Reflex
Flaring of extremities with stimulation of sound

258

Landau reflex

- starts at 3 months
- baby raises head

259

Perez Reflex

finger down spine = body extends

260

Gallant Reflex

while running finger down the ipsilateral paraspinal muscles, the baby will contract to that side

261

DJD

MC geriatric NEUROMUSCULAR complaint

262

Arcus Senilis

grayish opaque ring around cornea

263

Presbyopia

hardening of lens
MC visual complain 40+
cannot see close

264

Presbycussis

inability to hear high frequencies

265

Diabetes Mellitus

MC geriatric ENDOCRINE complaint / malfunction

266

Iron Deficient Anemia

MC anemia in geriatrics

267

Decubitus Ulcer

bed sore that requires PROTEIN for healing
MC over the sacrum

268

MC fx bone in elderly

Hip

269

MC visual problem in the elderly causing blindness

Macular Degeneration
** careful of the wording..

270

Alzhiemers

MC type of dementia

271

Ageism

Discriminatory treatment of the elderly

272

Tonometer

glaucoma test (for increases intraocular pressure)

273

PET

measure blood volume and metabolism

274

Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome

Alcohol abuse
B1 (thiamine) deficiency

275

Epispadia

urethra opening on top

276

Hypospadia

urethra opening on bottom

277

Paraphimosis

foreskin entrapped behind glans penis -- improper circumcision -- ER

278

Priapism

painfully erect penis

279

Fistuala

abnormal passage between 2 organs

280

Fissure

small tear in mucosa that lines the anus

281

Abscess

collection of pus that accumulated in tissue

282

Abandonment

transfer of a patient to another doctor without the patients consent

283

Assault

threat of violence = VERBAL

284

Battery

adjusting without consent = PHYSICAL

285

Binding Arbitration

dispute that is resolved by an unbiased third party and has no appeal process

286

Civil court

malpractice cases held

287

Defmation of Character

Libel, slandar, etc

288

Employers must pay:

Workers comp, FICA, and SS for employees

289

Expressed Consent

procedure is explained, understands and agrees

290

Good Samaritan Law

good faith tendering of care at an emergency isnt liable for civil damages

291

Implied Consent

patient is unable to communicate their consent, but life saving interventions are required

292

Libel

false statement in WRITING that harms another

293

Malpractice

professional negligence

294

Negligence

failure to conform to standard of care

295

Plaintiff

where burden of proof lies in a court of law

296

Respondent Superior

Employee is responsible for actions of employees

297

Slander

false VERBAL statement that harms another

298

Standards of Care

"best practice"...formal diagnostic and treatment process

299

Substandard Care

when doctor fails to meet standard of care, and treatment / surgery occur

300

Statue of Limitation

length of time you have to sue for an injury

301

Third Party Consent

patient is mentally incapable of understanding procedure or ramifications so consent is given or withheld on their behalf by a legal designate

302

Tort

injured person receives compensation from person whom caused them injury

303

Vicarious Liability

responsibility is imposed upon one person for failure of another in the case of a special relationship (parent:child or employer:employee)

304

Adult Vital Signs 12+

Pulse: 60-100
BP: 90-140(s)/60-90(d)
Resp: 12-20 b/min

305

Children Vital Signs 1-12

Pulse: 80-100
BP: 80-110(s)
Resp: 15-30 b/min

306

Infant Vital Signs

Pulse: 100-140
BP: 70-95(s)
Resp: 25-50 b/min

307

Newborn Vital Signs

Pulse: 120-160
BP: >60(s)
Resp: 40-60 b/min

308

Conscious Choking: Child + Adult

1. Encourage coughing
2. No cough - give FIVE back blows between shoulder blades
3. Give FIVE abdominal thrusts

309

Conscious Choking: Infant

1. place infant face down along forearm
2. give 5 back blows
3. turn infant face up
4. give 5 chest thrusts (below nipple line)

310

Unconscious Choking: Child + Adult

1. Rise and tilt the head to prepare for ventilation
2. 30 chest compressions -- 100 per minute(2in depth)

311

Unconscious Choking: Infant

1. Fix head
2. 30 chest compressions (1.5in depth)

312

Finger Sweep

only performed:
- unconscious
- can see foregin matter

313

CPR

C = Circulation...check pulse at carotid artery
A = Airway....make sure its clear
B = Breathing....tilt head, pinch nose, allow lung relaxation between breathes

314

Artificial Ventilation Rates

Adult 12 (1/5sec)
Child 20
Infant 20
Newborn 30-60 (1/1-2s)

315

ADULT CPR

Hand: above sternum 2 hands
Depth: 2in
Cycles: 30:2 (1 or 2 rescuers)
Rate: 100/min

316

CHILD CPR

Hand: center of chest
Depth: 2in
Cycles: 30:2 --> 1 rescuer
15:2 --> 2 rescuers
Rate: 100/min

317

iNFANT CPR

Hand: two or three fingers on the center of the chest JUST BELOW THE NIPPLE LINE!!!!
Depth: 1.5in
Cycles: 30:2 --> 1 rescuer
15:2 --> 2 rescuers
Rate: 100/min

318

When to stop CPR

- another responder takes over
- you are too exhuasted
- scene becomes unsafe

319

CPR risk factors

Fractured rib
Punctured lung

320

Ingested Poisons

Emetic used unless patient is:
-unconscious
-seizures
-pregnant
-ingested corrosive substance

321

Inhaled Poisons

Emergency oxygen asap

322

Absorbed chemicals

Poisonous plant: rinse with water 20 mins
Dry chemicals: brush off with glove, then flush with tap water
Eye: irrigate with water

323

Cardiogenic Shock

patient supine with feet higher than head!!

324

Hypovolemic shock:

decreased blood volume

325

Neurogenic / Vasogenic Shock:

trauma to spinal cord / brain

326

Obstructive Shock

ie: pulmonary embolisum

327

Respiratory Shock

failure of lungs to transport 02

328

Septic shock

infection spread releasing toxins

329

Lightening strike

lay victim down with feet elevated and head lower than trunk

330

Impaled objects of eye

Leave object in and cover with gauze;
COVER BOTH EYES: indirect light reflex

331

Battle sign

basilar skull or cribiform plate fx

332

Burns

Graded by the depth:
1st: Redness - epidermis
2nd: Blisters - epidermis and dermis
3rd: charring of skin

333

Concussion

Grade 1: 15-30 mins, no loss of consciousness but have memory lossy, confusion, headache, dizziness
Grade 2: 30 mins-entire day; severe grade 1
Grade 3: loses consciousness; intense confusion and memory loss

334

Epidural Hematoma

fast bleeding rate

335

Glasgow Sclae

assess consciousness
1. eye opening
2. verbal response
3. motor response

336

Heat cramps

electrolyte deficiency

337

Heat Exhaustion

cool patient and remove excess clothing
low blood pressure + rapid / weak pulse = shock

338

Heat Stroke

Cessation of sweating and high body temp
Rapid weak pulse
Shallow breathing
Low BP
Throbbing headache

** IMMERSE PT IN COLD WATER TO HIS NECK**

339

Hypothermia

remove wet clothing and dry off.
DO NOT:
- immerse in hot water
- rub extremities

340

Frostbite

Do not attempt to re-warm area!!!
Soak in warm water

341

Raccoon Sign

black and blue spots around eyes

342

Subarachnoid Hematoma

cerebral aneurysm -- form of stroke

343

Subdural Hematoma

Head Trauma
Deadliest of all head injuries
SLOW onset and SLOW bleeding

344

Vesicle

small (

345

Papule

small (

346

Macule

small (

347

Pustule

small (