Atypical cervical vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Exam 2 > Atypical cervical vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atypical cervical vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Deck (25):
1

what names are given to C2?

axis or epistropheus

2

what unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?

dens or odontoid process

3

how many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

5

4

what joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

facet for fovea dentis, groove for transverse atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachement site for the apical-dental ligament

5

which joint classifications are represented at the odontoid process of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

6

what is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachement sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

lordotic dens

7

what is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

kyphotic dens

8

what joint surfaces are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves and cancellous bone

9

how many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

5

10

what joint classifications are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

11

how many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?

10

12

what joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

13

what ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?

membrana tectoria

14

what ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?

posterior longitudinal ligament

15

what lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?

superior articular process

16

what is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?

on the lamina-pedicle junction

17

what attaches to the lamina of C2?

obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum

18

what is the appearance of the superior articular facet of C2?

asymmetrical and slightly convex

19

what is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?

backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

20

what is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?

forward, lateral, and down (FoLD)

21

what is the classification of the zygapophyseal joints of C2?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

22

what osseous parts of the typical cervical transverse process are present at C2?

costal element, posterior tubercle and true transverse process

23

what is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

males: 57 millimeters; females: 50 millimeters

24

what muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?

levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis and intertransversarii

25

what muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

rectus captitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidus, rotators and interspinalis muscles