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1

Bruner et al

2004

2

2004

Bruner et al

3

Benefits of PAs

Safeguard biodiversity and provides benefits to society

4

Why are the benefits fo PAs reduced

Due to underfunding

5

What does the article look at

The cost of effectively managing all existing PAs in developing countries, and the cost of expanding into high-priority new areas

6

Commitments of establishing a new protected area system

Long term political and financial commitments, these are frequently not met

7

How many protected areas suffer from underfunding

Thousands of protected areas in the developing world suffer an extreme funding deficit (James et al 1999)

8

Example of underfunding

Ghana's 'empty forest' parks (Oates, 1999)

9

What is the estimated total annual cost of effectively managing all existing protected areas in developing countries

Approx $2.3 billion (James et al 1999, 2001)

10

CFA 2002

At local and national levels, mechanisms such as ecotourism, payment for ecosystem services, and environmental exit taxes on visitors all have the potential to raise significant revenues

11

Who said that mechanisms such as tourism can generate revenues

CFA 2002

12

What is there a need for

National governments to increase their direct support for protected areas, with a focus on the most threatened protected areas.