Flashcards in Cardio Bible Deck (60)
what are the side effects of ACE inhibitors?
when are ACE inhibitors contraindicated?
renal artery stenosis
what are tall tented T waves and wide QRS complexes indicative of?
what does rib notching on CXR indicate?
coarctation of the aorta
what does radial-radial delay indicate?
aortic dissection/coarctation of aorta
slow rising pulse?
who gets staph aureus endocarditis?
IV drug users
who gets strep viridans endocarditis?
post dental surgery
how is AF treated?
treat underlying cause
Control ventricular rate with:
- Beta blocker/Ca blocker
- Add digoxin or amiodarone
how does clopidogrel work?
binds to P2Y12 receptor via disulphide bond so ADP cant bind, GP not expressed, reduced platelet aggregation
how does heparin work?
binds to AT3 and increases affinity for clotting factors to inactivate
what is the ductus arteriosus?
connection between pulmonary artery and descending aorta during foetal development to bypass the lungs
what is a patent ductus arteriosus and what is the main sign of it?
connection between the pulmonary artery and descending aorta due to failure of the closure of ductus arteriousus
continuous machine like murmur
what does strawberry milkshake coloured blood indicate?
which dermatome does the herpes zoster virus (shingles) affect?
rash at level T4/T5
what is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of cholesterol?
HMG - CoA - Reductase
what do cholesterol lowering drugs target?
Give an example?
HMG - CoA - Reductase enzyme
Statins = competitive inhibitor of HMG - CoA - Reductase
what are 2 side effects of statins?
rhabdomyolysis (death of muscle fibres and contents released into blood affecting the kidneys)
myositis (inflammation of muscles of movement)
what are the symptoms of an AAA?
expansile pulsatile mass
central abdominal pain
how is an AAA treated, depending on size?
only intervene if >5cm or grown more than 0.5cm in past 6 months/1cm in past year
what is an aneurysm?
vessel dilated more than 50% of normal diameter
true vs false aneurysm?
true = vessel wall intact just swollen
false = breach in vessel wall, surrounding structures act as vessel wall
3 types of aneurysm?
fusiform (in line with artery)
mycotic (2ndary to infectious process, all 3 layers)
how is AAA diagnosed?
CT ( better as shows whether ruptured)
how is an AAA managed?
EVAR (better - excludes from inside artery)
salvageable acute limb ischaemia?
- 0-4 hrs
- white foot
- sensorimotor deficit
partly salvageable acute limb ischaemia?
blanches on pressure