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Flashcards in Cardio Bible Deck (60)
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1

what are the side effects of ACE inhibitors?

dry cough
hyperkalaemi

2

when are ACE inhibitors contraindicated?

pregnancy
renal artery stenosis

3

what are tall tented T waves and wide QRS complexes indicative of?

hyperkalaemia

4

what does rib notching on CXR indicate?

coarctation of the aorta

5

what does radial-radial delay indicate?

aortic dissection/coarctation of aorta

6

collapsing pulse?

aortic regurgitation

7

slow rising pulse?

aortic stenosis

8

crescendo-decrescendo murmur?

aortic stenosis

9

who gets staph aureus endocarditis?

prosthetic valves
IV drug users

10

who gets strep viridans endocarditis?

post dental surgery

11

how is AF treated?

treat underlying cause
Control ventricular rate with:
- Beta blocker/Ca blocker
- Add digoxin or amiodarone
Anticoagulate
- heparin

12

how does clopidogrel work?

binds to P2Y12 receptor via disulphide bond so ADP cant bind, GP not expressed, reduced platelet aggregation

13

how does heparin work?

binds to AT3 and increases affinity for clotting factors to inactivate

14

what is the ductus arteriosus?

connection between pulmonary artery and descending aorta during foetal development to bypass the lungs
should close

15

what is a patent ductus arteriosus and what is the main sign of it?

connection between the pulmonary artery and descending aorta due to failure of the closure of ductus arteriousus
continuous machine like murmur

16

what does strawberry milkshake coloured blood indicate?

hyperlipidaemia

17

which dermatome does the herpes zoster virus (shingles) affect?

rash at level T4/T5

18

what is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of cholesterol?

HMG - CoA - Reductase

19

what do cholesterol lowering drugs target?
Give an example?

HMG - CoA - Reductase enzyme
Statins = competitive inhibitor of HMG - CoA - Reductase

20

what are 2 side effects of statins?

rhabdomyolysis (death of muscle fibres and contents released into blood affecting the kidneys)
myositis (inflammation of muscles of movement)

21

what are the symptoms of an AAA?

expansile pulsatile mass
central abdominal pain

22

how is an AAA treated, depending on size?

only intervene if >5cm or grown more than 0.5cm in past 6 months/1cm in past year

23

what is an aneurysm?

vessel dilated more than 50% of normal diameter

24

true vs false aneurysm?

true = vessel wall intact just swollen
false = breach in vessel wall, surrounding structures act as vessel wall

25

3 types of aneurysm?

saccular (berry)
fusiform (in line with artery)
mycotic (2ndary to infectious process, all 3 layers)

26

how is AAA diagnosed?

Doppler US
CT ( better as shows whether ruptured)

27

how is an AAA managed?

open repair
EVAR (better - excludes from inside artery)

28

salvageable acute limb ischaemia?

- 0-4 hrs
- white foot
- painful
- sensorimotor deficit

29

partly salvageable acute limb ischaemia?

4-12 hrs
mottled appearance
blanches on pressure

30

non-salvageable acute limb ischaemia?

>12 hrs
fixed mottling
non-blanching
paralysis
compartments tender/red