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Flashcards in cardio/pulm Deck (161)
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0

How many children will outgrow mild asthma ?

60%

1

What are 4 main triggers for asthma?

Weather change
Aspirin
Beta blockers
Viral URI

2

What is the trend in asthma mortality?

Mortality of asthma is increasing!

3

Is asthma more common in boys or girls?

More common in boys until puberty - but later it is equal in boys and girls

4

What are the 3 clinical descriptions associated with mild intermittent asthma?

Symptoms less then 2x weekly
Night symptoms less then 2x monthly
No pulmonary function abnormalities

5

What are the 3 clinical descriptions associated with mild persistent asthma ?

Normal PFTs
Symptoms more than 2x per week
Night symptoms more than 2x per month

6

What is the treatment for mild persistent asthma?

Low dose inhaled steroids
2nd line - leukotriene inhibitor

7

What is the treatment for moderate persistent asthma?

Low to medium dose steroid + laba

8

When do you classify a child as having moderate persistent asthma?

When a child requires bronchodilators more than twice per week

9

What is the definition of mild exacerbation of asthma ?

Decreased pulmonary function but still >50% of predicted

10

When is levalbuterol indicated instead of albuterol?

Only in patients with tachycardia, tremors or irritability

11

When is chest PT and mucolytics indicated for asthma?

Never

12

What are 5 side effects of beta adrenergic agonists?

Tremors
Tachycardia
Hypokalemia
Hyperglycemia
Hypomagnesemia

13

What does high or low CO2 indicate in the setting of acute asthma?

High pCO2 indicates CO2 retention and fatigue with respiratory failure
Low pCO2 reflects tachypnea

14

What are 5 signs of hypercapnia?

Agitation
Flushing
Altered mental status
Headache
Tachycardia

15

What is the most common cause of chronic nighttime cough?

Reactive airway disease

16

What are 4 main causes of infant wheezing, other than asthma?

Aspiration
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Foreign body
Vascular rings

17

What is the definition of exercise induced asthma?

Coughing and wheezing 5 minutes after exercising with improvement within 15 minutes of rest

18

What diagnosis should you consider in a patient with a "respiratory infection that is not clearing"?

Foreign body

19

What are the 4 main causes of poor exercise tolerance ?

Cardiac disease
Anemia
Muscle weakness
Psychological factors

20

What medication may be indicated for exercise induced asthma?

Leukotriene inhibitor (montelukast)

21

What are the 4 risk factors for persistent asthma ?

Onset before age 3
IgE elevated
Maternal hx asthma
Eosinophilia

22

What diagnosis must be considered in a patient with unlabored breathing but sudden onset of intermittent productive cough and wheezing?

Foreign body aspiration

23

What diagnosis corresponds with blunted inspiratory loop on spirometry?

Vocal cord paralysis

24

What is the safest and most effective way to confirm foreign body aspiration?

Airway fluoroscopy

25

What is the treatment for a swallowing dysfunction ?

Thickened formula and upright feeding position

26

What are 3 signs of respiratory failure ?

Tachypnea
Retractions
Pulsus paradoxus

27

What is pulsus paradoxus?

When the difference in blood pressure during inspiration and expiration is >10mmHg

28

What is the first thing to do when deciding whether to intubate a patient ?

Assess respiratory effort

29

What is the best way to assess for the severity of respiratory distress ?

Sweating / fast heart rate