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Flashcards in Cattle Deck (67)
1

Maternal cattle breed traits

Low birth weight 

Easy calving

Fertility

Milk production

Early puberty

Low muscling

Can be British, American, Continental

2

Dual purpose

HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN

Usually black and white (red variant has more conc milk)

Average female weight: 700-800kg

Average male weight: up to 1200 kg

Milk quality: low fat (3.7%) /protein (3.2%)

Annual yield: 8000-12 000 kg important!!!

3

What hormones can be used to induce ovulation and what can be used to induce estrus in the female?

Ovulation: hCg or GnRH Cycle: progesterone, PGIFa2, PRID (device)

4

Give four important genetic diseases of Holstein

DUMPS Hemophilia B Hypertrichosis Oligodontia (lack of teeth)

5

How long is the lactation period of the cow and is a dry period needed between lactations?

About 300 days, a dry period of 2 months is needed for mammary regeneration

6

Dual purpose

Norwegian Red cattle

about 40% naturally polled

Popular to cross with Holstein (in USA)

An open, synthetic breed

Breeding goal: health, fertility

7

Give 7 paternal beef cattle breeds

Charolais

Limousin

Maine-Anjou

Blonde D'Aquitaine

Belgian blue

Chianina

Piedmontese

8

Give the twinning rate and the rate of females becoming freemartins when twinning with a male

Twinning: 1-4% Freemartin rate: +90%

9

Give an important genetic disease of Simmental

Platelet bleeding disorder

10

What is important to look at in the chemical composition of the milk?

Fat/Protein ratio Lactose content Color, odor, taste pH, density, conduction Vitamins, ketone bodies, urea, fatty acid composition SCC = somatic cell count (leukocyte content)

11

When is a heifer ready to have a calf?

At 2 or 3 years, depending on breed

12

How long does it take for the average cow to be milked?

3-5 mins

13

Give three genetic skeletal diseases in cattle

Chondrodysplasia Dwarfism (STH receptor mutation) Syndactylia (fused digits)

14

Name some inter species hybrids and the aim of creating them

Cattalo Yakalo Beefalo Aim: to produce high protein low fat beef

15

What is a stag?

A male castrated after maturity. It will act like an uncastrated male

16

How long is the female in heat?

24-48 hrs

17

What is a freemartin?

A female calf from a twin pregnancy where the testosterone from the male twin has caused changes to the female’s reprod system during early gestation, making it sterile

18

Give 10 maternal beef cattle breeds

Angus

Hereford

Shorthorn

Hungarian gray

Galloway

Highland cattle

Devon

Lincoln red

Dexter

Chillingham

19

Is twinning desired or not? What is the heritability?

Beef cattle yes Dairy cattle no Heritability (h^2) 0.01-0.09 (low)

20

Give some general reprod traits of the dam

Uniparous Low reprod potential Late breeding Long gestation Continuously polyestrus (anestrus pathologically)

21

What is an ox

A castrated male kept for draft or riding purposes

22

What is a steer/bullock?

A male castrated before maturity

23

What is the Latin name for today’s domesticated cattle?

Ruminantia Bovidae Bovinae Bos taurus

24

Give three genetic metabolic diseases in cattle

Gangliosidosis Citrullinaemia DUMPS (uridine monophosphate synthase deficiency)

25

What types of milking parlours exist?

Rotary Herringbone Parallel

26

What is a dam

Mother of an offspring

27

Dairy cattle

Jersey cow

Small breed, brown, cute

High butterfat (6%) and protein (4%)

Average female weight: 350-540 kg

Average male weight: 540-820 kg

Annual yield: 5400 kg

28

Dairy cattle

Guernsey

Brown with white spots

Average female weight: 450-550kg

Average male weight: 700-800kg

Milk quality: rich flavour, golden colour (carotene) concentrated

Annual yield: 5800-6000kg

29

Where does the fertilization happen and at what day does the implantation into the uterine wall happen?

Fertilization happens in the Fallopian tubes, implantation happens on the 21-22 day (early)

30

Terminal/paternal beef cattle breed traits

Muscling

Fast growth

31

Give four genetic blood/circulation diseases in cattle

Hyperbilirubinaemia Protoporhyria (congential, AR) Platelet bleeding disorder Hemophilia B (factor IX)

32

What are some related species to the domesticated European cattle?

Yak (Mongolia, China) Zebu with hump (muscular hyper trophy) SE Asia Bali cattle (small) Goyal cattle (sacrificial animals) Bison (American/European) Asian water buffalo African buffalo

33

Dual purpose

Brown Swiss

From Braunvieh, grey coloured (?)

Average female weight: 700 kg

Average male weight: up to 1135 kg

Milk quality: 4.5% fat, 3.6% protein, great for cheese production!

Annual yield: 9000 kg

34

What is injected into the cow to increase lactation in USA?

recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGH

35

Name some feral cattle breeds

Chillingham cattle Aleutian wild cattle Enderby island cattle Ushuaia Cattle

36

Give an important genetic disease of Limousine

Protoporphyria

37

What parameters are used to measure milk performance

Average milk yield Max daily milk yield FCM = fat corrected milk yield Fat yield Protein yield

38

What species can you mate to get the infertile male Dzo and fertile female Dzomo?

Yak and domestic cattle Heterosis

39

What is a cow?

A female cow with at least one offspring

40

What is a sire?

The father of an offspring, used in dairy breeding

41

When is the heifer sexually mature (but not ready to have a calf just yet)

When she is 15 months or about ¾ of her full grown body weight

42

Give three intersex diseases in cattle

XY females Testicular/ovarian/Uterine dysplasia (abnormal development) or hypoplasia (under-development) TFS - testicular feminization syndrome (ø adrenergic receptors)

43

When was cattle domesticated?

About 10,000 years ago (8000 B.C.)

44

What factors of milk should you consider when wanting to produce cheese?

Lipid droplet size (small is good --> jersey too big)

Kappa casein content (solidification of cheese)

Lipase content (?)

45

Give three genetic muscular diseases of cattle

Spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) Hypertrophy (double muscling) Weaver syndrome

46

What is a calf

A young male of female cattle before one year old

47

Give some important parameters on udder evaluation

Udder depth Udder attatchment Teat placement Teat size Udder cleft

48

What is the heck cattle

A reconstruction of the now extinct Auroch, made by German zoologists to have in zoos.

49

Ancestor of modern domesticated cattle?

Auroch Went extinct in the 17th century

50

What are some symptoms that the female is in heat?

Mucus discharge Mounting other females Hyperaemic external genitalia

51

When does a cattle reach puberty?

At 12-16 months

52

When does ovulation happen?

12-14 hrs after heat

53

Give an important genetic disease of Shorthorn

Parakeratosis

54

How long is the gestation period

Approx 280 days

55

Give an important genetic disease of Dexter

Dwarfism

56

Dairy cattle

Ayrshire

Red and white, good conformation  (esp udder)

Average female weight: 500-600kg

Average male weight: 750-850kg

Milk quality: 4% butterfat and protein

Annual yield: 6400 kg

57

How many chromosomes do domesticated cattle and water buffalo have?

Cattle: 2n = 60 Water buffalo: 2n = 48

58

What is a heifer?

Young female before she has had a calf

59

What can cause cycle disorders in the cattle?

CLP (Corpus lutea persistens) ovulation induced with PGIF2a Cystic ovaries

60

What is a yearling

A calf between one and two years old

61

Give two important genetic diseases of Brown Swiss

Weaver syndrome Albinism

62

How long is the estrus cycle?

21 days (biphasic: follicular and luteal phase)

63

How can you diagnose the pregnancy?

Ultrasound Rectal examination Hormone testing Progesterone in blood plasma Fetal proteins Estrone sulfate in milk

64

What are 9 parameters used to evaluate the reproduction performance

Age at first calving: approx 2 years Insemination index (whatever that is): ideally less than 1,5 Non-return rate: less than 60% Calving interval: 360-380 days but can be over 40p First fertile heat after calving: 35-40 days Service period: less than 60 days Pregnancy rate: above 95% Sterility: under 10% Embryonic mortality: under 5%

65

What cattle breeds are important in the cheese production?

Montbéliarde

Shorthorn (English cheddar)

Brown swiss

Normande (camembert)

Guernsey

Ayrshire

Holstein

66

Give two genetic immunodeficiency diseases in cattle

BLAD (bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency) Chediak-Higashi

67

Name two bovine species that cannot mate?

Asian water buffalo and domestic cattle Likely because of different chromosome number