Cervical Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cervical Cancer Deck (12):
1

People most at risk from cervical cancer

Sexually active women aged 30 to 45

2

Symptoms of cervical cancer

Often asymptomatic in early stages.

Abnormal vaginal bleeding:
- During sex
- Between periods
- Post menopausal

3

Main causes of cervical cancer

Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV: a very common virus that is transmitted through any kind of sexual contact.

4

Which kinds of HPV are responsible for cervical cancer

There are hundreds of types of HPV, most of which are harmless.

HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for most cases.

5

Do condoms prevent HPV spread?

They reduce risk, but do not eliminate it, since HPV can be spread from skin to skin contact anyhwere in the genital region.

6

How is cervical cancer treated?

Surgery, if discovered early. Hysterectomy may be required.

Radiotherapy often used as adjunct in early stages.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in later stages.

7

Side effects of cervical cancer treatment

Infertility
Early menopause

8

Symptoms of advanced / invasive cervical cancer

Back / pelvic pain
Kidney pain
Constipation
Urinary and bowel frequency
Incontinence
Haematuria
Severe vaginal bleeding

9

How long between infection with HPV, development of CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) and development of cervical cancer?

Very slow progression.

Years to decades

10

Risk factors for cervical cancer

Smoking (2 times the risk)
Immunodeficiency
Combined oral contraceptive pill (poorly understood)
Having more than 5 children

11

How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

Colposcopy and biopsy

12

Complications of advanced cervical cancer

Pain
Kidney failure
Blood clots (DVT, PE)
Bleeding, vaginal, PR, urine
Fistula