Cervical Vertebra Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cervical Vertebra Deck (114):
1

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

Atlas

2

What features are lacking at C1?

Vertebral body
Pedicles
Spinous process
Intervertebral disc

3

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

Longus colli

4

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

Anterior longitudinal ligament
Anterior atlanto-occipital ligament
Anterior atlanto-axial ligament

5

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

Fovea dentis

6

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

They are elliptical
Closer together in front
Often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

7

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)

8

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

9

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

Asymmetrical
Slightly concave or flattened

10

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

Backward, medial, downward (BMD)

11

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?

Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthroidal) joint

12

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1?

Tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

13

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

Levator scapula
Splenius cervicis
Rectus capitis anterior

14

What is the contribution of the posterior arch to the circumference of C1?

About 40%

15

What part of C1? represents the spinous process?

Posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

16

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

Males: about 50mm
Females: about 37mm

17

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C!?

Rectus capitis posterior minor
Ligamentum nuchae

18

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

Groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery
Arcuate rim

19

What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1?

Posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

20

Ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament results in which atypical bone classification?

Accessory bone

21

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

About age 7

22

What may be formed of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

Partial ponticulus posticus or complete ponticulus posticus

23

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

24

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

Arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

25

Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?

All ethnic populations

26

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1%-4%

27

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

Female

28

What is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete ponticulus posticus?

Incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus is about 15%
Incidence of an incomplete ponticulus posticus may be as high as 41%

29

What joint classifications may be observed on the posterior arch of C1?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

30

What is the location of the "zygapophysis" relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramen?

It forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases

31

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

Costal element
Posterior tubercle
True transverse process

32

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

Anterior tubercle
Costotransverse bar

33

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

Rectus capitis anterior
Rectus capitis lateralis
Middle scalene
Levator scapula
Spenius cervicis
Obliquus capitis superior
Obliquus capitis inferior
Intertransversarii muscles

34

What suboccipital muscles are known to have facial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

Rectus capitis posterior minor
Rectus capitis posterior major
Obliquus capitis inferior

35

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?

Myodural bridges

36

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

Lateral mass of atlas
Transverse process of atlas

37

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

Retrotransverse foramen

38

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

Vertebral artery
Branch from the suboccipital nerve
Veins communicating with the venous sinus of the neck

39

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?

Lateral bridges

40

What is observed in the transverse foramen of C1?

Vertebral artery
Vertebral venous plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

41

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

Males: 78mm
Females: 72mm

42

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

Little over 30mm for both males and females

43

What joint classifications are observed at C1?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint
Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint
Synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

44

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

5

45

What names are given to C2?

Axis or epistropheus

46

What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?

Dens or odontoid process

47

What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

Facet for fovea dentis
Groove for transverse atlantal ligament
Alar ligament attachment
Apical-dental ligament attachment

48

Which joint classifications are represented at the odontoid process of C2?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint
Synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

49

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

Lordotic dens

50

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

Kyphotic dens

51

How many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

5

52

What joint classifications are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

53

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?

10

54

What joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

55

What ligaments will attach posteriorly, to the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2?

Membrana tectoria
Posterior longitudinal ligament

56

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?

Membrana tectoria

57

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?

Posterior longitudinal ligament

58

What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?

Superior articular process

59

What is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?

On the lamina-pedicle junction

60

What attaches to the lamina of C2?

Obliquus capitis inferior
Posterior altanto-axial ligament
Ligamentum flavum

61

What muscle attaches to the lamina of C2?

Obliquus capitis inferior

62

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?

Backward, upward, lateral (BUL)

63

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?

Forward, lateral, down (FoLD)

64

What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?

Longissimus cervicis

65

What osseous parts of the typical cervical transverse process are present at C2?

Costal element
Posterior tubercle
True transverse process

66

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

Males: 57mm
Females: 50mm

67

What muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?

Levator scapulae
Middle scalene
Splenius cervicis
Longissimus cervicis
Intertransversarii

68

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in human?

Bifid

69

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

Rectus capitis posterior major
Obliquus capitis inferior
Spinalis cervicis
Semispinalis cervicis
Multifidis
Rotators
Interspinalis muscles

70

What names may be given to C7?

Vertebra prominens
Vertebral prominence

71

What is the name given to the topographical elevation observed at the base of the neck?

Vertebral prominence

72

What name is only given to C7?

Vertebra prominens

73

What is the segment and gender bias for vertebrae other than C7 becoming the vertebral prominence?

C6 is more common in females
T1 is more common in males

74

What joint surfaces are present at the superior margin of the vertebral body of C7?

Anterior groove
Posterior groove
Right & left uncinate processes
Cancellous bone

75

What joint surfaces are present at the inferior margin of the vertebral body of C7?

Anterior and posterior margins of the inferior epiphyseal rim
Cancellous bone

76

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C7?

8

77

What joint classifications are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (ampohiarthrosis) symphisis
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) joint

78

How many joint surfaces are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

2

79

What muscle attaches to the vertebral body of C7?

Longus colli muscle

80

What features are typically present in the transverse foramen of C7?

Vertebral venous plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers

81

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C7?

Middle scalene
Iliocostalis thoracis
Longissimus cervicis
Semispinalis capitis
Rotators
Intertransversarii
Levator costarum brevis

82

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C7?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)

83

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C7?

Forward, medial, downward (ForMeD)

84

What muscles will attach to the articular process of C7?

Longissimus cervicis
Longissimus capitis
Semispinalis cervicis
Multifidis

85

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C7?

Trapezius
Rhomboid minor
Serratus posterior superior
Splenius capitis
Spinalis capitis
Spinalis cervicis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotators
Interpsinalis

86

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C7?

Ligamentum nuchae
Interspinous ligaments

87

The vertebral artery on which side is typically larger?

Left vertebral artery

88

What is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery?

Men have larger vertebral arteries than women

89

What was the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency?

Vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test

90

Which side artery was tested during the course of the vertibrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?

Ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation

91

What are the symptoms of failure of the vertebral artery to compensate during the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?

Dizziness
Vertigo
Nausea

92

The vertebral artery is typically a branch of which artery?

Subclavian artery

93

Typically, at what vertebral level will the vertebral artery first become located in the transverse foramen?

C6

94

At what location will the vertebral artery form its first compensatory loop?

Atlanto-axial interspace

95

At what location will the vertebral artery form its secondary compensatory loop?

Atlanto-occipital interspace

96

At what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen?

Both C1 & C2

97

What is the purpose of the vertebral artery loops between C2, C1, and occiput?

The increased length will accommodate the greater rotation at these locations

98

What happens to the vertebral artery after it enters the subarachnoid space at C1?

Vertebral artery ascends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine-medullary junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery

99

What artery is formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries?

Basilar artery

100

Which suboccipital muscles attach to C1?

Rectus capitis posterior minor
Obliquus capitis superior
Obliquus capitis inferior

101

Which suboccipital muscles attach to C2?

Rectus capitis posterior major
Obliquus capitis inferior

102

Which transversospinalis muscles attach to the cervical spine?

Semispinalis cervicis
Semispinalis capitis
Multifidis
Rotators

103

What joint classifications are present at C1?

Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal
Synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

104

What joint classifications are present C2?

Synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

105

What classifications are present at each typical cervical?

Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

106

What joint classifications are present at C7?

Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

107

What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C1 nerve from the spinal canal?

Occipital condyle
Superior articular process of C1
Capsular ligament
Arcuate rim
Groove for the vertebral artery
Posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

108

What forms the anterior boundary for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

Inferior articular process of C1
Superior articular process of C2
Capsular ligament

109

What forms the posterior boundary for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

Posterior arch of C1
Lamina of C2
Posterior atlanto-axial ligament

110

What forms the anterior boundary for the C3-C7 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

Vertebral bodies
Intervertebral disc
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Uncinate process
Lateral groove

111

What are the superior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae?

C1 is backward, upward, medial (BUM)
C2 is backward, upward, lateral (BUL)
C3-C7 is backward, upward, medial (BUM)

112

What are the inferior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae?

C1 is backward, downward, medial (BMD)
C2-C6 is forward, downward, lateral (FoLD)
C7 is forward, downward, medial (ForMeD)

113

How many synovial joints are identified for each cervical vertebra?

C1 = 5
C2 = 8
C3-C6 = 8
C7 = 6

114

How many joints are identified at the vertebral body of each cervical vertebra?

C1 = none
C2 = 10
C3-C6 = 10
C7 = 8