Chapter 3.4 Adaptation, natural selection and the evolution of species Flashcards Preview

FULL COURSE National 5 Biology > Chapter 3.4 Adaptation, natural selection and the evolution of species > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3.4 Adaptation, natural selection and the evolution of species Deck (16):
1

A species is a

group of organisms that freely interbreed to produce fertile offspring

2

Mutations are

random, spontaneous changes in genetic material and the only source of new alleles.

3

Rates of mutation can be increased by environmental factors such as

certain types of radiation and chemicals

4

Mutations can be neutral and have

little effect on the organism with the mutation

5

Mutations can be harmful if they give the organism

a disadvantage and so decrease its chances of survival

6

Mutations can be beneficial if they give the organism an

advantage and so increase its chances of survival

7

Living organisms can evolve and adapt to

changing environmental conditions

8

Variation exists within

populations of living organisms

9

Living organisms often produce more

offspring than the environment can support

10

Natural selection acts on variation in populations in such a way that only those with the best

adaptions survive to reproduce

11

An adaptation is

a feature of an organism that helps it survive

12

The intensity of a selective factor such as predation is called

selection predation

13

The best adapted organisms with favourable characteristics have a

selective advantage

14

Individuals with a selective advantage survive to pass on their

beneficial characteristics to offspring

15

Speciation is the

evolution of two or more species from one original ancestor species

16

Speciation can occur when natural selection acts on an

isolated population causing it to evolve into a new species.