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Flashcards in Chemotherapy Deck (55)
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1

What are treatment options for cancer?

Surgery

Radiotherapy

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapies

Immunotherapy

2

What are the steps of the cell cycle?

G1 (gap 1, preparation for DNA replication)

R (restriction point, point in G1 where the cell becomes committed)

S (DNA replication)

G2 (preparation for mitosis)

M (mitosis, cell divsion)

3

What happens during G1 (gap 1)?

Preparation for DNA replication

4

What is R during the cell cycle?

Restriction point, where the cell become committed

5

What happens during S?

DNA replication

6

What happens during G2?

Preparation for mitosis

7

What happens during M?

Mitosis, cell division

8

What are things that make the cell cycle go around?

Growth factors

Oncogenes

9

What makes the cell cycle stop?

Tumour suppresor genes

10

What does chemo delivery do?

Reduces the amount of cells

11

What happens if the interval between chemo delivery is to long?

The cells grow back

12

How is systematic therapy delivered?

Oral or intravenous route

Regular cycles with timing dependent on the findings from pharmacokinetics (half life, excretion)

May need to delay treatment if toxicites develop

13

What needs to happen to chemotherapy if toxicities develop?

It needs to be delayed

14

What are methods of assessing drug therapy?

CT scan

PET scan

Clinical examination

15

What may assessing drug activity help?

Overall survival (OS)

Progression-free survival (PFS)

Improved quality of life (QoL)

16

What is progression free survival?

Length of time during and after treatment of a disease that a patient lives with the disease but it does not get any worse

17

What is overall survival?

The length of time from either the diagnosis or the start of treatment for a disease that the patient is still alive

18

What does an adjuvant do?

Improve survival

19

What does a neoadjuvant do?

May improve survival through increasing operability

20

What is adjuvant treatment?

Treatment given in addition to a primary treatment

21

What is neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

Medicines administered before surgery for the treatment of cancer

22

What are some different classes of cytotoxic agents?

Alkylating agents

Anti-metabolites

Mitotic inhibitors

Antibiotics

Other

23

What are some sites of action for cytotoxic agents?

Anti-metabolites prevent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA

Alkylating agents cross link guanine nucleobases, directly attacking DNA

Intercalating agents wedge between bases along DNA to stop polymerase and other proteins from binding (preventing DNA transcription and DNA duplication)

Spindle poisons act on tubulin, which forms the microtubules that attach to chromosomes during mitosis

24

What do alkylating agents do?

Attach to free guanines on seperated DNA strands, impairing DNA replication

25

What does the alkyl group of an alkylating agent allow?

Covalent bonds with other molecules

26

What is an example of an alkylating agent?

Cisplatin

27

What are some mechanisms of resistance against alkylating agents?

Decreases entry or increases exit of agent in cell

Inactivation of agent in cell

Enhanced repair of DNA lesions produced by alkylation

28

How do antimetabolites work?

Similar structure to essential metabolites required by cell prior to cell division

Can be incorporated into new nuclear material or bind with vital enzymes

29

What are examples of antimetabolites?

Antagonise folic acid

Antagonis purine

30

What are examples of spindle poisons?

Vinca alkaloids

Taxanes