Flashcards in Circulatory And Respitory Deck (44)
What is diffusion across membranes
Exchanging CO2 and O2 are essential for animal life.
How thick should membranes be for diffusion to occur?
Membranes can't be thicker than 1mm for diffusion to occur
Who has the more efficient lung system between mammals and birds?
What ventilation do most cartilaginous fishes use?
What is diffusion driven by?
Difference in o2 and co2 concentrations on 2 sides of membranes and relative solubilities in plasma membrane
What mammal is the respiratory champion?
How long can elephant seals hold their breath
Over 2 hours
Why are elephant seals the respiratory champion
Holds breath for over 2 hrs
Descend and ascends rapidly repeatedly
Can dive great depths
How do amphibians
They respire across their skin
What type of papulae do echinoderms have?
How do gases diffuse?
Directly into unicellular organisms
What are the 2 main disadvantages of gills
Must constantly move to ensure contact with oxygen rich fresh water
What lungs are more efficient between fish and salamanders
What vertebrate has the most efficient breathing?
What direction are bird lungs
1 direction lungs
What do branchial chambers do?
Provide means of pumping water past stationary gills
Draw water in and pass it over gills
Where does the branchial chamber lie in crustaceans
Between bulk of body and hard exoskeleton of animal
What do many amphibians use for gas exchange?
What are spiracles
Openings in exoskeleton that can be opened or closed by valves
Why were gills replaced in terrestrial animals?
Air is less supportive than water
What terrestrial animal is the only one without a 2 way flow system
How do lungs minimize evaporation?
By moving air through a branched tubular passage
What is more efficient countercurrent or concurrent?
How does hemoglobin form oxyhemoglobin
Loading up with oxygen in lungs
How many polypeptide chains are hemoglobin consist of
4 polypeptide chains
What are the 4 polypeptide chains
How is deoxyhemoglobin formed
Molecules losing o2 as blood passes through capillaries
At blood PO2 of 100 mm hg what percentage of saturation is hemoglobin
What PO2 is the blood that returns to the lungs of a person at rest?
About 40 mm Hg less