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Flashcards in Circulatory And Respitory Deck (44)
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1

What is diffusion across membranes

Exchanging CO2 and O2 are essential for animal life.

2

How thick should membranes be for diffusion to occur?

Membranes can't be thicker than 1mm for diffusion to occur

3

Who has the more efficient lung system between mammals and birds?

Birds

4

What ventilation do most cartilaginous fishes use?

Ram ventilation

5

What is diffusion driven by?

Difference in o2 and co2 concentrations on 2 sides of membranes and relative solubilities in plasma membrane

6

What mammal is the respiratory champion?

Elephant seals

7

How long can elephant seals hold their breath

Over 2 hours

8

Why are elephant seals the respiratory champion

Holds breath for over 2 hrs
Descend and ascends rapidly repeatedly
Can dive great depths

9

How do amphibians

They respire across their skin

10

What type of papulae do echinoderms have?

Protruding papulae

11

How do gases diffuse?

Directly into unicellular organisms

12

What are the 2 main disadvantages of gills

Must constantly move to ensure contact with oxygen rich fresh water

Easily damaged

13

What lungs are more efficient between fish and salamanders

Fish lungs

14

What vertebrate has the most efficient breathing?

Birds

15

What direction are bird lungs

1 direction lungs

16

What do branchial chambers do?

Provide means of pumping water past stationary gills

Draw water in and pass it over gills

17

Where does the branchial chamber lie in crustaceans

Between bulk of body and hard exoskeleton of animal

18

What do many amphibians use for gas exchange?

Cutaneous respiration

19

What are spiracles

Openings in exoskeleton that can be opened or closed by valves

20

Why were gills replaced in terrestrial animals?

Air is less supportive than water

Water evaporates

21

What terrestrial animal is the only one without a 2 way flow system

Birds

22

How do lungs minimize evaporation?

By moving air through a branched tubular passage

23

What is more efficient countercurrent or concurrent?

Countercurrent

24

How does hemoglobin form oxyhemoglobin

Loading up with oxygen in lungs

25

How many polypeptide chains are hemoglobin consist of

4 polypeptide chains

26

What are the 4 polypeptide chains

2 a
2 b

27

How is deoxyhemoglobin formed

Molecules losing o2 as blood passes through capillaries

28

At blood PO2 of 100 mm hg what percentage of saturation is hemoglobin

97% saturated

29

What PO2 is the blood that returns to the lungs of a person at rest?

About 40 mm Hg less

30

What is hemoglobin affinity for O2 affected by

pH and temperature