CNS Anomalies Flashcards Preview

OB/GYN > CNS Anomalies > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS Anomalies Deck (26)
0

Define anencephaly

Absence of brain

1

Anencephaly

Absent brain & calvarium
MC NTD
Fail of close of neural tube

SAB, fetal demise, terminate

Frog appearance
Cerebrovasculosa: malformed top of head
Absent cranial vault cephalad to orbits
Polyhydramnios

Risk: fam hx NTD, twins, female, recurrence

Assoc: spina bifida, cdh, cleft lip/palate, talipes, hydronephrosis, ❤️, GI, omphalocele, *polyhydramnios (can't swallow)

Fatal

2

Acrania / Exencephaly

Absent calvarium. Brain floats. Polyhydramnios

3

Spina Bifida / Myelomeningocele

2nd MC NTD
Fail of close of neural tube

1. Meningocele: opening of spine, meninges protrude
2. Myelomeningocele: opening of spine, meninges and spinal cord protrude. Most severe, most common.

Splaying of post ossification centers. U/V shape trvs spine
Cleft in soft tissue
Buldging sac that may have neural elements
Ventriculomegaly
Arnold Chiari II Malformation: banana sign & lemon sign


Assoc: hydrocephalus, holoprosencephaly, ACC, DWM, facial clefts, GU, CV, talipes, chromosomal

May cause partial paralysis of lower limbs.
Fetal surgery 24-26 weeks
Shunt for ventriculomegaly (fluid from brain shunt down to ABD)

Best ID in trvs scanning plane

4

Encephalocele / Cephalocele

Herniation of brain and or meninges through cranial defect
Mostly post occipital region

1. Cranial meningocele: just meninges
2. Encephalocele: brain & meninges. MC

Assoc: hydrocephalus, spina bifida, microcephaly, ACC, chromosomal, ❤️, genital, clefts

Fluid filled sac extending from calvarium
Defect in calvarium
Polyhydramnios

5

Holoprosencephaly

Fail of fusion of forebrain

1. Lobar: mildest. Absent CSP. Single incisor
2. Semilobar: separate thalamus, LV fused, cerebral hemispheres fused, no CSP
3. Alobar: most severe, may not see cerebrum, absent falx, monoventricle, thalami fused

Assoc:
Facial: cyclopia, hypotelorism, cebocephaly (hypotelorism with single nostril), ethmocephaly (cyclopia or hypotelorism with proboscis), proboscis, bilateral clefts

macrocephaly, microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, monoventricle, absent CSP & ACC

Trisomy 13
Syndromes

6

Cyclopia

1 eye or 2 fused eyes

7

Cebocephaly

Hypotelorism & single nostril

8

Ethmocephaly

Cyclopia or hypotelorism with a proboscis

9

Proboscis

Fleshy appendage that sits above orbits

10

Dandy Walker Malformation

Abnl cerebellum & 4th ventricle. Replacement with posterior fossa cyst. Aplastic / absent/ splaying cerebellar vermis
Enlg CM
Ventriculomegaly

Linked with CMV, rubella, alcohol, diabetes, aneuploidy

11

Agenesis of the corpus callosum / callosal agenesis

Absent CSP
Colpocephaly: frontal horns of LV widely spaced, tear drop shape
Dilated 3rd ventricle

Mental retard, seizures

12

Hydranencephaly / Hydrocephalic anencephaly

Vascular accident. Massive brain destruction. Liquefaction necrosis of cerebral hemispheres.

Toxoplasmosis, herpes

Macrocephaly, intact brain stem, replacement of cerebral hemispheres by cystic cavity.
Remnant falx

Initially brain hemispheres are echogenic due to accident.

13

Porencephaly

Mild
Infarct/hemorrhage of brain parenchyma
Necrosis/cystic resolution communicating with ventricle
No mass effect.

Ugly irregular cystic area in LV

14

Schizencephaly

Abnl migration of neurons
Clefts in cortex extending to calvarium lined with gray matter.

15

Lissencephaly

Abnl neuron migration. Smooth brain.

Agyria: absent/dec brain gyria
Pachygyria: widely spaced gyria

16

Hydrocephaly

Ventriculomegaly and enlg skull
Atria of LV > 1 cm
Dangling choroid


Causes: NTD, DWM, ACC, aqueductal stenosis, arachnoid cyst, vein of Galen aneurysm, torch, intracranial neoplasms, aneuploidy, clover leaf skull (msk abnl), holoprosencephaly, ideopathic

17

Microcephaly

Small head
Underdeveloped brain
Retard

18

Arachnoid cyst

Cystic mass
Does not communicate with ventricle
Assoc hydrocephalus

19

Vein of Galen aneurysm

AV malformation
Cyst with turbulent Doppler flow centrally located.

20

Choroid plexus cyst

Common. May resolve. Assoc trisomy 18.

21

Cystic Hygroma

Congenital malformation of lymphatics
Usually in neck.
Assoc with aneuploidy & Turners Syndrome

Single or multi loculated fluid filled cavity. Usually post/lat of neck.

Assoc hydrops. If hydrops then fatal.

22

Teratoma

50% sacrococcygeal
Malignant or benign
Inc MSAFP

Complex mass, polyhydramnios, hydrops.

23

Craniosynostosis

Premature closure of sutures

24

Aqueduct of Sylvius connects

3rd & 4th ventricle

25

Meckel Gruber Syndrome

Cystic kidneys
Polydactyly
Encephalocele
Microcephaly