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Flashcards in Computers & Internet Deck (20)
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Windows, Mac OSX, and Linux are the three largest ______ _______ .

operating systems


What do you call the series of letters after a file name, such as .doc, .pdf, or .gif?

the file extension


What is the small unit of digital memory that is enough to code a single character (letter, number, symbol)?

a byte

Each byte is made up of 8 smaller units called bits.


Rank the following file sizes from smallest to largest: terabyte, kilobyte, gigabyte, megabyte

  • kilobyte or KB (1,000 Bytes)
  • megabyte or MB (1,000 KB)
  • gigabyte or GB (1,000 MB)
  • terabyte or TB (1,000 GB)


About how large, in computer memory, is a typical 5-minute song? What about a typical 2-hour movie?

  • A typical song encoded with MP3 compression is about 5 - 12 MB in size.
  • A typical high-definition movie encoded with H.264 compression is around 2 GB in size.


What do you call a computer whose main purpose is to store data and communicate with other computing devices?

a server

Every website is hosted on a server(s). When you visit a web page, you are actually connecting with that company's server and interacting with it.


What does HTTP stand for?

HyperText Transfer Protocol

This system was devised by Tim Berners-Lee (via the Worldwide Web Consortium) in 1989, and allows web pages to "link" to each other using a new clickable feature known as "hypertext." This technology marked the beginning of the World Wide Web. Previously, the Internet consisted of mostly military computers communicating with each other at a command line.


What is the name of the markup language used to code simple web pages?

HTML, or HyperText Markup Language

The language was first used in 1993. The most recent version, HTML5, was released in 2014.


What are the four key components of a computer?

  • Motherboard: circuit board; home to major electronic components.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit): transmits signals telling the computer what operations to carry out.
  • RAM (Random Access Memory): allows data to be read and written
  • Hard drive or Solid State Drive: stores computer data including operating system and applications.


Name some of the major programming languages used to create computer programs.

Major programming languages include:

  • C
  • Java
  • PHP
  • Javascript
  • C++
  • Python
  • Perl
  • Go
  • Ruby on Rails


What feature allowed Google to quickly become the world's major search engine, supplanting all other search engines by the early 21st century?

Page Rank Algorithm

  • While other search engines of the early computer era based their results primarly on keywords and page hits, Google focused on the quality of each web page using a formula called Page Rank.
  • This algorithm regularly indexes the entire web to measure the degree to which sites link to each other, thus determining which pages are most "credible" based on the number of other sites are linking to them and a number of other factors.
  • The exact algorithm is continually being refined, and is kept secret by Google.


What term describes the effort of making a website appear more frequently in web searches?

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

  • "Good" SEO is typically achieved by using the proper placement of keywords on the page, and making sure that other credible websites link to that page.
  • Other factors influencing SEO include site speed, average time on page, and the appearance of "duplicate content."


What is the term for the public-facing code that allows programmers to create applications that communicate with other sources?

Application Programming Interface (API)

  • APIs provide outsiders with access to only what is important for the "transaction", without allowing them to affect the code in the main application.
  • For example, when you make an online purchase, the store's website communicates with your bank via an API.
  • Google Maps offers its API to any developers who want to create apps using its mapping technology.


What is the most widely used Database language?

Structured Query Language (SQL)

Some variants include mySQL and SQLite. Other database languages include noSQL, MongoDB, and Oracle.


What company is known as "the Chinese Google" and is one of the world's largest technology firms?


  • Baidu was founded in 2000 by Robin Li and Eric Xu, two Chinese nationals who studied and worked overseas before returning to China.
  • The company went public on the Nasdaq in 2005 and now consists of dozens of internet services beyond just search.
  • Baidu is estimated to be worth more than $100 billion USD.


What is the keyboard shortcut to copy selected text?

Command + C (Mac)

Ctrl + C (Windows)


What is the keyboard shortcut to paste text?

Command + V (Mac)

Ctrl + V (Windows)


What is the keyboard shortcut to undo your last action?

Command + Z (Mac)

Ctrl + Z (Windows)


What is the keyboard shortcut to Open a New Browser Tab?

Command + T (Mac)

Ctrl + T (Windows)


What is the keyboard shorctut to Close your Current Browser Tab?

Command + W (Mac)

Ctrl + W (Windows)