Congenital Disorders Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics > Congenital Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Congenital Disorders Deck (120)
Loading flashcards...
1

How can infections be transmitted from mom to fetus?

Placenta
Amniotic fluid
Vaginal canal

2

What do the first trimester infections affect?

Developing organ systems

3

Spectrum of Presentation of Congenital Infections

Growth retardation
Premature delivery
CNS abnormalities
Hepatosplenomegaly
Bruising or petechiae
Skin lesions
Pneumonitis

4

What does TORCH stand for?

Toxoplasmosis
Other (syphilis, HIV, parvovirus B-19, varicella, hepatitis, enterovirus)
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes simplex

5

Where is toxoplasmosis found?

Cat feces
Raw/undercooked meat
Contaminated soil/water

6

Maternal Symptoms of Toxoplasmosis

Nonspecific
Fatigue
Fever
Headache
Malaise
Myalgia

7

Neonate Symptoms of Toxoplasmosis

Fever
Maculopapular rash
Hepatosplenomegaly
Microcephaly
Seizures
Jaundice
Thrombocytopenia
Generalized lymphadenopathy

8

Classic Triad of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

Chorioretinitis
Hydrocephalus
Intracranial calcifications

9

Primary Focus of Infection in the Neonate is

CNS

10

What is the CNS sign of Toxoplasmosis?

Calcified cystic lesions dispersed within the brain

11

Long Term Complications of Neonate Toxoplasmosis

Seizures
Mental retardation
Spasiticity
Relapsing chorioretinitis

12

Diagnostics of Toxoplasmosis

IgM anti-toxoplasma antibody at 20-26 weeks (mother)
Isolation of parasite in fetal blood or amniotic fluid
Postnatal: IgM antibodies in serum
Prenatal ultrasound

13

Findings on the Prenatal Ultrasound in Toxoplasmosis

Symmetric ventricular dilation
Intracranial calcifications
Increased placental thickness
Hepatomegaly
Ascites

14

Labs for Toxoplasmosis May Show

Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Eosinophilia
Abnormal CSF

15

Treatment for Toxoplasmosis

Pyrimethamine & sulfadiazine
Spiramycin

16

Other: HIV

Educate & address mother's infection

17

Other: Enterovirus

Usually acquired around the time of birth, good prognosis

18

Other: Parvovirus B-19

Possible fetal hemolytic crisis associated

19

Other: Varicella

Perinatal exposure can be very severe
Immune globulin given if suspected

20

Other: Hepatitis

Type B
HBIG & vaccine if mom is positive

21

Other: Syphilis

Mom in primary or secondary stage transmission is nearly 100%

22

Syphilis Infection can Result in

Stillbirth
Hydrops fetalis
Prematurity & associated long-term morbidity
Hepatomegaly
Edema
Thrombocytopenia
Anemia
Skeletal abnormalities, saddle nose deformity
Rash (maculopapular, vesicular)

23

When does transmission occur during pregnancy?

Second half of pregnancy

24

Early Symptoms of Congenital Syphilis

Hepatosplenomegaly
Skin rash
Anemia
Jaundice
Metaphyseal dystrophy
Periostitis
CSF with increase protein & PMNs

25

Define Snuffles

Nasal obstruction
Initially clear drainage then purulent or sanguineous discharge

26

Treatment of Syphilis

Penicillin G

27

Syphilis Monitoring of Child

Vision changes
Hearing
Developmental abnormalities

28

When is high maternal to fetal transmission rate transmission?

Mother infected in first trimester

29

Clinical Manifestations of Congenital Rubella

Deafness
Cataracts
Cardiac Malformations
Neurologic & Endocrinologic sequelae
Growth retardation
Radiolucent bone disease
Hepatosplenomegaly
Thrombocytopenia
Purpuric skin lesions
Hyperbilirubinemia

30

Diagnostics for Rubella

Increased anti-rubella IgM titer in perinatal period
Increased anti-rubella IgG titer in1st few years of life
Isolate virus from throat swab, CSF, or urine