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Flashcards in Cranial nerves Deck (81):
1

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there

12

2

Olfactory nerve is the only sensory modality that does not synapse in the thalamus, true or false

true

3

Where is the primary olfactory cortex

temporal lobe

4

What sensory neurons pick sense olfaction

bipolar neurons

5

What type of nuclei are motor components associated with

motor nuclei

6

What type of nuclei are sensory components associated with

sensory nuclei

7

Where are the nuclei of CN 3, 4, 6 and 12 found

midline

8

Oculomotor nerve: what is the nucleus for the somatic motor modality

nucleus of oculomotor nerve

9

Oculomotor nerve: what is the nucleus for parasympathetics

Edinger-Westphal EW nucleus

10

Where are the CN 3 nuclei found

superior colliculus in midbrain

11

What is the nucleus for the trochlear nerve - somatic motor

nucleus of trochlear nerve

12

Where is the nucleus of trochlear nerve found

inferior colliculus in midbrain

13

what nuclei are associated with the trigeminal nerve

mesencephalic nucleus
principle sensory nucleus
spinal nucleus
motor nucleus of CN V

14

Where are the trigeminal nuclei found

pons

15

What nucleus is associated with the abducens nerve - somatic motor

nucleus of abducent nerve

16

Where is the CN VI nucleus found

pons

17

What is the nucleus associated with the hypoglossal nerve

nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve

18

where is the nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve found

medulla

19

What are the nuclei for the facial nerve:
motor
sensory
parasympathetic

motor = nucleus of facial nerve
sensory = geniculuate nucleus/solitary tract
parasympathetic = superior salivatory nucleus

20

What are the nuclei for the glossopharyngeal nerve:
sensory
special sensory - taste
parasympathetic
motor

sensory = spinal trigeminal nucleus
taste = solitary tract nucleus
parasympathetic = inferior salivatory nucleus
motor = nucleus ambiguus

21

What are the nuclei of the vagus nerve:
sensory
taste (epiglottis - negligible)
parasympathetic
motor

sensory = spinal trigeminal nucleus
taste = solitary tract nucleus
parasympathetic = dorsal motor nucleus
motor = nucleus ambiguus

22

Which cranial nerves share the solitary tract nucleus and what is the main function and where is it found

CN VII, IX, X
Taste
Medulla

23

Which cranial nerves share the nucleus ambiguus and where is it found

CN IX + X
Medulla

24

Which cranial nerves share the salivatory nuclei

facial (superior)
glossopharyngeal (inferior)

25

Sensory modalities of which cranial nerves share the spinal trigeminal nucleus

trigeminal
glossopharyngeal
vagus

26

What is meant by brain death

irreversible cessation of brainstem function

27

What is the corticobulbar tract

part of the pyramidal/descending tract that is motor output for cranial nerves 5, 7, 10, 12
ie regulation of brainstem activity

28

input to the corticobulbar tract is bilateral, what is the exception

input to the facial nucleus is only bilateral to muscles that control the upper face only

29

What is the input for parasympathetic CN 3, 7, 9, 10

hypothalamus

30

What is the reticular formation

network of loosely aggregated cells in the central core of the brainstem

31

What are the functions of the reticular formation

integrate CN reflexes
conduction and modulation of pain
voluntary movement
autonomic activity
respiration
sleep
maintains consciousness

32

What is the pathway of the olfactory nerve

olfactory mucosa in nasal cavity
cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
olfactory bulb
cerebral cortex

33

What is the pathway of the oculomotor nerve

midbrain
lateral to cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit + ciliary ganglion

34

What is the pathway of the trochlear nerve

midbrain
lateral wall of cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
superior oblique muscle

35

What is the pathway of the abducent nerve

pontomedullary junction
WITHIN the cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
Lateral rectus muscle

36

Which cranial nerve travels within the cavernous sinus

CN VI

37

What is the pathway of the vestibulocochlear nerve

cochlear and vestibular apparatus
internal acoustic meatus
towards PMJ
pontomedullary junction

38

What is the pathway of the spinal accessory nerve

cervical spinal cord
enters foramen magnum
exits jugular foramen
supplies sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

39

What is the pathway of the hypoglossal nerve

medulla oblongata
anterior to hypoglossal canal
hypoglossal canal
descends lateral to the carotid sheath and goes to supply the tongue at the level of the hyoid bone

40

Which extrinsic muscle of the tongue does CN XII NOT supply

palatoglossus - supplied by CN X

41

Where in the brainstem does CN V originate

pons
travels inferior to the tentorium cerebelli

42

What are the cranial formainae for
CN V1
CN V2
CN V3

1. superior orbital fissure
2. foramen rotundum
3. foramen ovale

43

What is the pathway of the facial nerve

pontomedullary junction
internal acoustic meatus
muscles of facial expression, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands

44

What supplies taste to anterior 2/3rds of tongue

chorda tympani of facial nerve

45

In Bells palsy, is taste preserved?

yes, taste is still fine because chorda tympani has already branched off

46

Through which foramen does the facial nerve exit the skull

stylomastoid foramen

47

What is the pathway of the glossopharyngeal nerve

medulla oblongata
jugular foramen
descends towards pharynx and mouth

48

Which salivary gland does CN IX innervate

parotid gland

49

What is the pathway of the vagus nerve

medulla oblongata
jugular foramen
descends in carotid sheath, supplies from palate to midgut, gives of RLN branches

50

Auditory pathway is bilateral, true or false

true

51

Describe the auditory pathway (ECOLI)

Eighth cranial nerve
Cochlear nuclei (pons)
superior Olivary nucleus (pons)
Lateral lemniscus
Inferior colliculus (midbrain)
medial geniculate body
thalamus
auditory cortex

52

What is the lateral lemniscus in the auditory pathway

band of white matter carrying auditory information

53

What is the trapezoid body in the auditory pathway

carries information from the cochlear nucleus in the pons on one side of the body to the superior olivary nucleus on the other side

54

Where is the primary auditory cortex

temporal lobe

55

Tonotopic organisation is present in the auditory cortex, true or false

true

56

Where is Broca's area found

left cerebral hemisphere in the frontal lobe

57

Where is Wernicke's area found

left cerebral hemisphere in the temporal lobe

58

Damage to the Broca's area results in what

Broca's/expressive aphasia
difficulty in speech production
language comprehension is in tact

59

Damage to the Wernicke's area results in what

Wernicke's/receptive aphasia
difficulty in language comprehension
speech production is in tact

60

where do the 4 vestibular nuclei connect to

thalamus
medial longitudinal fasciculus + CN 3,4,6 nuclei
cerebellum
spinal cord

61

What is the medial longitudinal fasciculus

tract in brainstem which coordinates eye movements with head and neck movements

62

Where is the highest level of visual acuity found in the retina

fovea centralis in the macula

63

medial geniculate nucleus
auditory or visual

auditory

64

lateral geniculate nucleus
auditory or visual

visual

65

Describe the visual pathway

visual fields
retinal fields
optic nerves
optic chiasm
optic tracts
(superior colliculi for reflexes)
lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus
optic radiations
primary visual cortex in the calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe

66

The lower visual field is projected to the gyrus superior/inferior to the calcarine sulcus

superior

67

The upper visual field is projected to the gyrus superior/inferior to the calcarine sulcus

inferior

68

What are optic radiations also known as

geniculocalcarine tracts

69

What is Meyer's loop

fibres of the optic radiations that are part of the internal capsule that come from the upper visual field / lower retinal fields which loop around the temporal part of the lateral ventricles ending below the calcarine sulcus

70

fibres from upper/lower visual fields are found in Meyer's loop

upper visual fields
lower retinal fields

71

what movements does the visual cortex (occipital lobe) provide

movements in response to visual stimuli eg tracking moving objects
smooth eye movement

72

what movements do the frontal eye fields control

movements of command ie independent of moving visual stimuli
jerky eye movements

73

Where are frontal eye fields found

motor cortex

74

What are the visual reflexes

pupillary light reflex
accommodation reflex

75

What does the pupillary light reflex look for

direct and consensual pupillary constriction
unilateral stimulus provides a bilateral response

76

What nerves are involved in the pupillary light reflex

optic nerve = afferent
oculomotor nerve = efferent

77

What is the accommodation reflex

looks for convergence, pupillary constriction and ciliary muscle contraction
tests CN III - EW nucleus

78

List some white matter tracts of the brain

association fibres
commissural fibres
projection fibres

79

What are association fibres

connect cortical sites lying in the same cerebral hemisphere

80

What are commissural fibres

connect one cerebral hemisphere with the other - usually those with similar functions

81

What are projection fibres

fibres that connect cerebral hemispheres to deeper structures eg thalamus, corpus striatum, brainstem and spinal cord