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Flashcards in Current Threats Deck (113)
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1

What is the largest conservation conference

ICCB

2

How many species have been described

1.8 million

3

Why is it some times hard to protect species

If we don’t know they are there

4

How many mammals have we lost since 1600

87 species

5

How many birds have we lost since 1600

131 species

6

How many amphibians have we lost since 1600

5

7

How many reptiles have we lost since 1600

22 species

8

How many fish have we lost since 1600

92 species

9

How many dicots have we lost since 1600

83

10

How many plants have we lost since 1600

90

11

How many animals have we lost since 1600

726 species

12

Percentage of annual species loss

0.27%-0.63%

13

What did MEA 2005 stay

Over the past 50 years humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history.
Has resulted in substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth.

14

What did the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment say

Current extinction rates estimated to be 100 times greater than background geological rates and predicted to increase strongly during this century.
10-30% of mammal, bird and amphibian species are threatened with extinction.

15

What is the ipbes

Intergovernmental science policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services

16

What are the foci of value for ipbes

Nature.
Nature’s contribution to people.
Good quality of life.

17

What are the types of value in ipbes

Intrinsic (animal welfare)
Anthropocentric - instrumental and relational. (Food and energy and physical, mental health.)

18

What are the main drivers of biodiversity loss

Direct/ proximate
Indirect/ underlying

19

What are direct drivers of biodiversity loss

Habitat loss and fragmentation.
Over-exploitation.
Invasive species.
Pollution.
Climate change.

20

What are indirect drivers of biodiversity loss

Economic factors.
Cultural factors.
Policy/institutional factors.
Demographic factors.
Underlying drivers.
Synergistic effects.

21

What are proximate causes of tropical deforestation

Infrastructure extension
Agricultural expansion
Wood extraction

22

What are underlying causes of deforestation

Demographic factors.
Economic factors.
Technological factors.
Policy and institutional factors.
Cultural factors.

23

What is habitat loss and fragmentation

Loss of total area of habitat.

24

How does fragmentation cause biodiversity loss

Decreased patch size.
Increase patch isolation - can cause road kill.
Increased edge effects -there’s more edge, sunny and windy abiotic factors impact and implicate which species live there.

25

Why do small and isolated fragments have fewer species

Late fragments contain high variety of habitats.
Large fragments have common and rare species.
Large fractions have large populations so less go extinct.
Isolated fragments are less likely to be colonised if a species is lost.

26

Why does large populations means animals are less likely to go extinct

Large area has large abundance.
Large genetic integrity.
More for predators.

27

Example of fragmentation

Forest mammals in SW USA.
Tropic forest in Madagascar - 10% remains.

28

Causes of fragmentation in Madagascar

Timber extraction.
Forest conversion to pasture for grazing.
Mining now.

29

Consequences of fragmentation in Madagascar

Mass extinctions of fauna since human arrival.
Important not to conflate with an understanding that extinction is normal.

30

From 1950-2000 what percentage of species has been driven to extinction through deforestation

9.1%