Flashcards in Current Threats Deck (113)
What is the largest conservation conference
How many species have been described
Why is it some times hard to protect species
If we don’t know they are there
How many mammals have we lost since 1600
How many birds have we lost since 1600
How many amphibians have we lost since 1600
How many reptiles have we lost since 1600
How many fish have we lost since 1600
How many dicots have we lost since 1600
How many plants have we lost since 1600
How many animals have we lost since 1600
Percentage of annual species loss
What did MEA 2005 stay
Over the past 50 years humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history.
Has resulted in substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth.
What did the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment say
Current extinction rates estimated to be 100 times greater than background geological rates and predicted to increase strongly during this century.
10-30% of mammal, bird and amphibian species are threatened with extinction.
What is the ipbes
Intergovernmental science policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services
What are the foci of value for ipbes
Nature’s contribution to people.
Good quality of life.
What are the types of value in ipbes
Intrinsic (animal welfare)
Anthropocentric - instrumental and relational. (Food and energy and physical, mental health.)
What are the main drivers of biodiversity loss
What are direct drivers of biodiversity loss
Habitat loss and fragmentation.
What are indirect drivers of biodiversity loss
What are proximate causes of tropical deforestation
What are underlying causes of deforestation
Policy and institutional factors.
What is habitat loss and fragmentation
Loss of total area of habitat.
How does fragmentation cause biodiversity loss
Decreased patch size.
Increase patch isolation - can cause road kill.
Increased edge effects -there’s more edge, sunny and windy abiotic factors impact and implicate which species live there.
Why do small and isolated fragments have fewer species
Late fragments contain high variety of habitats.
Large fragments have common and rare species.
Large fractions have large populations so less go extinct.
Isolated fragments are less likely to be colonised if a species is lost.
Why does large populations means animals are less likely to go extinct
Large area has large abundance.
Large genetic integrity.
More for predators.
Example of fragmentation
Forest mammals in SW USA.
Tropic forest in Madagascar - 10% remains.
Causes of fragmentation in Madagascar
Forest conversion to pasture for grazing.
Consequences of fragmentation in Madagascar
Mass extinctions of fauna since human arrival.
Important not to conflate with an understanding that extinction is normal.