Flashcards in Day 2 Deck (22)
What is earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?
about age 7 years old
Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?
an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus
What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?
arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal
Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?
all ethnic populations studied thus far
What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior arch of C1?
fibrous (ampiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint
What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?
costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process
What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?
anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar
What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?
rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles
what suboccipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?
rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior
What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?
What are the lateral bridges of the atlas connected to?
the lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas
What forms the lateral bridges are observed in the population?
incomplete lateral bridges and complete lateral bridges
What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?
the retrotransverse foramen
Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?
What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?
males: 78 millimeters and females: 72 millimeters
What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?
a little over 30 millimeters for both males and females
What joint classifications are observed at C1?
fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint
How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?
What synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?
two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets and the fovea dentis
What names are given to C2?
axis or epistropheus
What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?
the dens or the odontoid process