Degenerative Disc Module Updated Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Degenerative Disc Module Updated > Flashcards

Flashcards in Degenerative Disc Module Updated Deck (33):
1

Contains collagen fibers and proteoglycans

Nucleus pulposus

2

What is the role of the annulus?

To contain the nucleus

3

True or false: intervertebral discs are avascular

True

4

Three major functions of disc

Spacer
Distribute Load
Accommodate movement

5

Phases of degenerative cascade

Dysfunction
Instability
Stabilization

6

Can result in general laxity in annulus

Bulging disc

7

Nucleus begins to protrude through a year in annulus in one area

Herniated disc

8

The type of herniation in which a portion of disc that has protruded through the annulus remains attached to remain material

Extruded disc herniation

9

Protruding portion of disc detached from remainder of disc

Sequestration disc herniation

10

Herniation towards midline putting pressure on spinal cord or cauda equina

Central herniation

11

May experience localized numbness, weakness, and tingling

Far lateral herniation

12

Generally affects spinal nerve

Far lateral herniation

13

When a herniation affect both spinal cord and spinal nerve

Paracentral herniation

14

Condition that develops when the ligaments and posterior elements hypertrophy, enlarge, and the vertebral foramen narrows

Spinal stenosis

15

Numbness and tingling

Paresthesia

16

What is spondylolysis

When the pars fractures completely

17

What are radicular symptoms

Numbness, tingling, weakness, and/or paresthesia

18

Radicular symptoms typically correspond to what?

A dermatome

19

What do myelopathic symptoms typically indicate?

Impingement of spinal cord

20

What are myelopathic symptoms?

Gait disturbances, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and or/generalized weakness

21

What are some conservative treatment options available to patients prior to considering spinal surgery?

Rest, weight management, anti-inflammatory drugs, chiropractic care, physical therapy, pain management

22

Success rate for treating severe lumbar radiculopathy with conservative therapy

50%

23

Removal of bone or soft tissue putting pressure on neural elements

Decompression

24

Physically removing the pieces of tissue that are exerting pressure onto a neural element

Direct decompression

25

Increasing the amount of room for the neural structures by increasing or restoring the height of the disc space

Indirect decompression

26

A procedure in which sections of the lamina and the facet are removed

Foraminotomy

27

Removal of part of the lamina to relieve compression on a neural element or to gain access to other anatomical structures

Laminotomy

28

A procedure that involves the removal of the herniated portion of a disc, performed through a small incision, usually with the assistance of a microscope to enhance visualization

Microdiscectomy

29

A procedure in which the lamina is removed

Laminectomy

30

A procedure that involves reshaping the lamina to increase the volume of the vertebral foramen and decompress the spinal cord without removing the protective function of the lamina

Laminoplasty

31

Removal of the disc

Discectomy

32

Inducing the body to grow a bridge of bone from one vertebra to another

Fusion

33

Five basic steps of discectomy and fusion

Removal of disc
Placement of spacer in disc space
Graft Augmentation
Stabilization
Fusion