Flashcards in EENT Emergencies Deck (71):
Third cranial Nerve that inner fates the muscles that cause motion of the eyes and upper eyelids.
Second Cranial Nerve, provides sense of vision
White of the eye, tough fibrous coat that helps maintain shape of the eyes. Hepatitis or cirrhosis cause yellowing of this part
Transparent anterior portion of the eye that overlays the iris and pupils.
Clouding of cornea results in cataracts
Mucous membrane that covers sclera and internal surfaces of the eyelids but not iris.
Cyanosis can be detected in conjuctiva
Pigmented part of the eye
Circle opening that opens inside the iris.
Dialates to let more light inside
Transparent structure that can alter its thickness to focus light on retina at back of the eyes
Received light impulses and converts them to nerve signals that are conducted by brain and optic Nerve and interpreted as vison
Clear watery fluid in eye
Jelly like substance that maintains shape of globe between the iris and cornea
Facilitates visualization of objects directly in front of you
Visualization of lateral objects when looking forward
Secretes and drains tears from the eye
Drains tears from lacrimal gland
From above eye to the corner of the eye
Discoordination between the movements of two eyes
Surrounding tissues and structures of the eyes
Fire, burns the eyes
Sun, laser burns occurs
Welding, causes superficial burns of the eye
May take 3 to 5 hours for pain
Management- Cover eyes with sterile moist pad and eye shield
Cool compress may provide some pain relief
Place patient in supine position
Acid or alkali substances
Management- immediate irrigation!!!
Use only sterile water or saline
Use a syringe or nasal cannula
Irrigate for at least 5 minutes
Irrigate for at least 20 if eye is affected by acid or alkali substance
Eyed device used for constant irrigation
Removing contact lenses
Don't attempt to remove if eye is injured
ONLY remove if chemical burn to the eye
Hard lense- use small suction cup
Soft lense- one to two drops of saline in eye, gently pinch lense, and place lense in sterile water container
"Pink eye" conjuctiva becomes inflamed and red
Most often starts in one eye and moves to the other
Scrape to outside of the eye
Can irrigate or tape eyelid close
Sensitivity to light
Dust, dust, splinters
Management- If on surface on cornea, remove with soft tip cotton swab moistened
Stabilize object in glove
Cover with moist sterile dressing and cover other eye.
Oil gland of eyelid becomes block and forms a swollen bump or pustule
"Style" red tender bump on eyelid from blocked oil duct
Increased intraocular pressure
Excessive pressure can damage optic Nerve
Assessment- loss of vision or blind spot
Eye drops usually prescribed
Bleeding into anterior portion of eye from trauma that obscures Vision partially or completely
Management- If hyphema is suspected take spinal precautions and elevate head to 40 degrees to decrease IOP
Antiplatelets should be avoided
Inflammation of iris
Assessment- redness of the eye, cloudy vision or unusual shaped eye
Swelling or inflammation of optic Nerve at the rear of the eye
Patients experience headaches, vomiting, vision loss or fraying vision
Separation of inner layers of retina from underlying membrane
Often seen in sports injuries, especially boxing
Hearing, Balance, and orientation
Pinna, external auditory canal, and exterior portion of tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Inner portion of ear drum and ossicles
Cochlea and semicircular canals
Process of hearing
Sound enters through pinna and travel through external auditory canal to the ear drum.
Vibrations against eardrum set up vibrations in the three small bones on inner side of tympanic membrane (malleus, incus, stapes).
Vibrations transmitted to cochlear duct at oval window
Movmenent of oval window causes fluid within cochlea to vibrate
Then hair movements that form nerve impulses that travel to the brain via auditory nerve.
Brain decodes these impulses and converts them to sound
Foreign Body of Ear
Do not remove, just stabilize
Yellwish oily substance found inside ear canal "ear wax"
Feeling of vertigo or loss of balance after an ear infection
Irritation and swelling of inner ear affects Nerves of ear causing loss of balance
Management- antihistamine to reduce swelling, Valium for sedative or muscle relaxant
Inner ear disorder when endolymphatic rupture causes increased pressure in cochlear duct.
Patients experience tinnitus and vertigo
Infection from bacterial growth within ear
Perforate Tympanic Membrane
Ruptured eardrum from blast, foreign Body, infection
Consider pain management
Filter, humidifier, and heater for air entering lungs
Inside is extremely vasculature
Shortcut to the brain
Blood brain barrier can be breached by entering the spinal fluid
Makes IN faster route of obsorption that IV with some medications
Total loss of smell
Distorted sense of smell
Increased sensitivity to smell
Decreased sensitivity to smell
Seeration between nostirls
Inside nasal chamber are layers of bone covered with a moist lining.
Air humidified as it passes over the turbinates.
Lined with mucous membranes.
Decrease the weight of the skull and provide resonance for the voice.
(Maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid)
Never insert when bleeding or CSF present in nasal cavity
Place patient leaning forward and pinch the nostrils
Nasal disorder common during childhood and adolescence.
Caused by pollen, allergens, animal dander.
Thick nasal drainage, sinus and facial pressure, headache, and fever
Cranial Nerve XII provides motor function to the tounge
Cranial Nerve IX provides taste sensation to posterior portions of the tounge
Fungus accumulates on inside of tounge
Cellulitis caused by bacteria from an infected tooth root
Foreign Body in mouth
Keep in position for gravity to fall out
Inflammation of epiglottis.
Can block trachea and obstruct airway.
Common in 1 to 5 years of age
Assessment- dysphagia, stridor and respiratory distress. Tripod position.
Caused by virus similar to flu.
Not serious unless leading to croup or epiglottitis.
Bacterial infection of trachea.
Caused by staphylococcus aureus.
Assessment- croup like cough, difficulty breathing, fever, stridor.
Management- 100% oxygen
Swelling and inflammation of tonsils usually caused by viral infections.