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Flashcards in EENT Emergencies Deck (71):
1

Globe

Eyeball

2

Oculomotor Nerve

Third cranial Nerve that inner fates the muscles that cause motion of the eyes and upper eyelids.

3

Optic Nerve

Second Cranial Nerve, provides sense of vision

4

Sclera

White of the eye, tough fibrous coat that helps maintain shape of the eyes. Hepatitis or cirrhosis cause yellowing of this part

5

Cornea

Transparent anterior portion of the eye that overlays the iris and pupils.
Clouding of cornea results in cataracts

6

Conjuctiva

Mucous membrane that covers sclera and internal surfaces of the eyelids but not iris.
Cyanosis can be detected in conjuctiva

7

Iris

Pigmented part of the eye

8

Pupil

Circle opening that opens inside the iris.
Dialates to let more light inside

9

Lens

Transparent structure that can alter its thickness to focus light on retina at back of the eyes

10

Retina

Received light impulses and converts them to nerve signals that are conducted by brain and optic Nerve and interpreted as vison

11

Aqueous Humor

Clear watery fluid in eye

12

Vitreous Humor

Jelly like substance that maintains shape of globe between the iris and cornea

13

Central Vision

Facilitates visualization of objects directly in front of you

14

Peripheral Vision

Visualization of lateral objects when looking forward

15

Lacrimal Apparatus

Secretes and drains tears from the eye

16

Nasolacrimal Duct

Drains tears from lacrimal gland
From above eye to the corner of the eye

17

Dysconjugate Gaze

Discoordination between the movements of two eyes

18

Adnexa

Surrounding tissues and structures of the eyes

19

Thermal Burns

Fire, burns the eyes

20

Infrared Rays

Sun, laser burns occurs

21

UV Light

Welding, causes superficial burns of the eye
May take 3 to 5 hours for pain
Management- Cover eyes with sterile moist pad and eye shield
Cool compress may provide some pain relief
Place patient in supine position

22

Chemical burns

Acid or alkali substances
Management- immediate irrigation!!!
Use only sterile water or saline
Use a syringe or nasal cannula
Irrigate for at least 5 minutes
Irrigate for at least 20 if eye is affected by acid or alkali substance

23

Morgan Lens

Eyed device used for constant irrigation

24

Removing contact lenses

Don't attempt to remove if eye is injured
ONLY remove if chemical burn to the eye
Hard lense- use small suction cup
Soft lense- one to two drops of saline in eye, gently pinch lense, and place lense in sterile water container

25

Conjuctivitis

"Pink eye" conjuctiva becomes inflamed and red
Most often starts in one eye and moves to the other

26

Corneal Abrasion

Scrape to outside of the eye
Can irrigate or tape eyelid close

27

Photophobia

Sensitivity to light

28

Foreign Body

Dust, dust, splinters
Management- If on surface on cornea, remove with soft tip cotton swab moistened
Stabilize object in glove
Cover with moist sterile dressing and cover other eye.

29

Chalzion

Oil gland of eyelid becomes block and forms a swollen bump or pustule

30

Hordeolum

"Style" red tender bump on eyelid from blocked oil duct

31

Glaucoma

Increased intraocular pressure
Excessive pressure can damage optic Nerve
Assessment- loss of vision or blind spot
Eye drops usually prescribed

32

Hyphema

Bleeding into anterior portion of eye from trauma that obscures Vision partially or completely
Management- If hyphema is suspected take spinal precautions and elevate head to 40 degrees to decrease IOP
Antiplatelets should be avoided

33

Iritis

Inflammation of iris
Assessment- redness of the eye, cloudy vision or unusual shaped eye

34

Papilledema

Swelling or inflammation of optic Nerve at the rear of the eye
Patients experience headaches, vomiting, vision loss or fraying vision

35

Retinal Detachement

Separation of inner layers of retina from underlying membrane
Often seen in sports injuries, especially boxing

36

Ear

Hearing, Balance, and orientation

37

External Ear

Pinna, external auditory canal, and exterior portion of tympanic membrane (eardrum)

38

Middle Ear

Inner portion of ear drum and ossicles

39

Inner Ear

Cochlea and semicircular canals

40

Process of hearing

Sound enters through pinna and travel through external auditory canal to the ear drum.
Vibrations against eardrum set up vibrations in the three small bones on inner side of tympanic membrane (malleus, incus, stapes).
Vibrations transmitted to cochlear duct at oval window
Movmenent of oval window causes fluid within cochlea to vibrate
Then hair movements that form nerve impulses that travel to the brain via auditory nerve.
Brain decodes these impulses and converts them to sound

41

Foreign Body of Ear

Do not remove, just stabilize

42

Creumen

Yellwish oily substance found inside ear canal "ear wax"

43

Labyrinthitis

Feeling of vertigo or loss of balance after an ear infection
Irritation and swelling of inner ear affects Nerves of ear causing loss of balance
Management- antihistamine to reduce swelling, Valium for sedative or muscle relaxant

44

Meniere Disease

Inner ear disorder when endolymphatic rupture causes increased pressure in cochlear duct.
Patients experience tinnitus and vertigo

45

Oitis

Infection from bacterial growth within ear

46

Perforate Tympanic Membrane

Ruptured eardrum from blast, foreign Body, infection
Consider pain management

47

Nose

Filter, humidifier, and heater for air entering lungs
Inside is extremely vasculature

48

Nasal Mucousa

Shortcut to the brain
Blood brain barrier can be breached by entering the spinal fluid
Makes IN faster route of obsorption that IV with some medications

49

Anosmia

Total loss of smell

50

Dysosmia

Distorted sense of smell

51

Hyperosmia

Increased sensitivity to smell

52

Hyposmia

Decreased sensitivity to smell

53

Nasal Septum

Seeration between nostirls

54

Turbinates

Inside nasal chamber are layers of bone covered with a moist lining.
Air humidified as it passes over the turbinates.

55

Paranasal Sinuses

Lined with mucous membranes.
Decrease the weight of the skull and provide resonance for the voice.
(Maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid)

56

NPA

Never insert when bleeding or CSF present in nasal cavity

57

Epistaxis

Nose bleed
Place patient leaning forward and pinch the nostrils

58

Rhinitis

Nasal disorder common during childhood and adolescence.
Caused by pollen, allergens, animal dander.

59

Sinusitis

Thick nasal drainage, sinus and facial pressure, headache, and fever

60

Mastication

Chewing

61

Hypoglossal Nerve

Cranial Nerve XII provides motor function to the tounge

62

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Cranial Nerve IX provides taste sensation to posterior portions of the tounge

63

Dentalgia

Toothache

64

Oral Candidiasis

Thrush
Fungus accumulates on inside of tounge

65

Ludwig Angina

Cellulitis caused by bacteria from an infected tooth root

66

Foreign Body in mouth

Keep in position for gravity to fall out

67

Epiglottitis

Inflammation of epiglottis.
Can block trachea and obstruct airway.
Common in 1 to 5 years of age
Assessment- dysphagia, stridor and respiratory distress. Tripod position.

68

Laryngitis

Caused by virus similar to flu.
Not serious unless leading to croup or epiglottitis.

69

Tracheitis

Bacterial infection of trachea.
Caused by staphylococcus aureus.
Assessment- croup like cough, difficulty breathing, fever, stridor.
Management- 100% oxygen

70

Tonsillitis

Swelling and inflammation of tonsils usually caused by viral infections.

71

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of pharynx