Flashcards in Endocrine Synap Deck (23)
what are the 5 main treatment pathways for acromegaly?
trans sphenoidal surgery
somatostatin analogues (octreotide)
dopamine agonists (cabergoline, bromocriptine)
GH antagonists (pegvisomant)
which genotypes are associated with type 1 diabetes?
which thyroid cancer spreads via lymph nodes?
papillary thyroid carcinoma
which thyroid cancer spreads via blood?
follicular thyroid carcinoma
high refined sugar intake is a precipitating factor in which - DKA or HHS?
how does HHS differ to DKA?
- more common in type 2 diabetics
- higher glucose levels
- lower ketone levels
which autoimmune condition is associated with Addison's disease?
name 4 features of hypercalcaemia and how it is diagnosed?
hypercalcaemia can lead to the development of which kidney condition?
name 2 causes of primary aldosteronism
Conns syndrome (adrenal adenoma)
bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
name 2 autoantibodies found in graves disease, which is more specific?
TSH receptor antibody
what is the recommended HbA1c during pregnancy?
target HbA1c for diabetics over and under 18s?
over 18 = <53
under 18 = <59
recommended HbA1c before conception?
what HbA1c is diagnostic of diabetes?
how is insulin synthesised?
pro-insulin formed by the rough ER
pro-insulin then cleaved to form insulin and C peptide
insulin is stored in secretory vesicles and released in response to Calcium
alpha and beta chain joined by a disulphide bond
what causes graves disease>
formation of IgG antibodies against TSH receptor
what type of tumour is described as the 10% tumour?
familial cases of phaeochromocytoma are linked to what condition?
how is phaeochromocytoma managed?
alpha then beta blockade