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Flashcards in Endocrine Synap Deck (23)
1

what are the 5 main treatment pathways for acromegaly?

trans sphenoidal surgery
somatostatin analogues (octreotide)
dopamine agonists (cabergoline, bromocriptine)
GH antagonists (pegvisomant)
radiotherapy

2

which genotypes are associated with type 1 diabetes?

HLA DQ2
HLA DQ8

3

which thyroid cancer spreads via lymph nodes?

papillary thyroid carcinoma

4

which thyroid cancer spreads via blood?

follicular thyroid carcinoma

5

high refined sugar intake is a precipitating factor in which - DKA or HHS?

HHS

6

how does HHS differ to DKA?

HHS
- more common in type 2 diabetics
- higher glucose levels
- lower ketone levels

7

which autoimmune condition is associated with Addison's disease?

vitiligo

8

name 4 features of hypercalcaemia and how it is diagnosed?

polyuria
polydipsia
confusion
depression
PTH measurement

9

hypercalcaemia can lead to the development of which kidney condition?

kidney stones

10

name 2 causes of primary aldosteronism

Conns syndrome (adrenal adenoma)
bilateral adrenal hyperplasia

11

name 2 autoantibodies found in graves disease, which is more specific?

anti TPO
TSH receptor antibody

12

what is the recommended HbA1c during pregnancy?

<43

13

normal HbA1c?

<41

14

target HbA1c for diabetics over and under 18s?

over 18 = <53
under 18 = <59

15

recommended HbA1c before conception?

<48

16

what HbA1c is diagnostic of diabetes?

>48

17

how is insulin synthesised?

pro-insulin formed by the rough ER
pro-insulin then cleaved to form insulin and C peptide
insulin is stored in secretory vesicles and released in response to Calcium

18

describe insulin

peptide hormone
alpha and beta chain joined by a disulphide bond

19

what causes graves disease>

formation of IgG antibodies against TSH receptor

20

what type of tumour is described as the 10% tumour?

phaeochromocytoma

21

familial cases of phaeochromocytoma are linked to what condition?

MEN

22

how is phaeochromocytoma managed?

alpha then beta blockade
adrenalectomy

23

where is calcium mostly absorbed?

distal convoluted tubule of the kidney