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Flashcards in endocrine system - practice Qs Deck (40):
1

which of the following is true of the endocrine system but not the nervous system
a. directs long term processes such as pregnancy and puberty
b. communicates via chemical signals
c. regulates activites of muscles and glands
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

A

2

which of the following statements about the endocrine system is NOT correct
a. it uses hormones, which are transported by the blood, to communicate with distant tissues
b. its hormones must bind to specific receptor sites in order to have effects on a tissue
c. it targets are limited to muscles, glands and nerves
d. it may take seconds, hours, or days to respond to a stimulus
e. its actoins may last seconds, hours, or days

C

3

which mediator is considered to be both a neurotransmitter and a hormone
a. insulin
b. norepinephrine
c. thyroid hormone
d. somatotropin
e. aldosterone

B

4

which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland
a. thyroid gland
b. adrenal gland
c. suderiferous gland
d. pituitary gland
e. parathyroid gland

C

5

which of the folliwng does not contain endocrine tissue
a. hypothalamus
b. thymus
c. heart
d. gall bladder
e. kidney

D

6

the anterior pituitary gland responds to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), but the posterior pituitary gland does not. Why
a. only anterior pituitary gland is permeable to GnRH
b. only the anterior pituitary gland is vascular
c. only the anterior pituitary gland is connected by neurons to the hypothalamus
d. only the anterior pituitary gland is connected to a duct carrying GnRH
e. only the anterior pituitary gland has receptors for GnRH

E

7

A patient has a tumor causing excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). How will his body attempt to compensate for excessive amounts of PTH
a. his body will up-regulate the receptors for PTH to become less sensitive to that hormone
b. his bory will up-regulate the receptors for PTH to become more sensitive to that hormone
c. his body will down-regulate the receptors for PTH to become less sensitive to that hormone
d. his body will down-regulate the receptors for PTH to become more sensitive to that hormone
e. his body will make hormone blockers that prevent PTH from binding to receptors

C

8

Each of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone except
a. aldosterone
b. thyroid hormone
c. insulin
d. nitric oxide
e. cortisone

C

9

which of the following is a function of a hormone transport protein
a. increase water solubility
b. decrease removal of hormone from blood by kidney
c. act as a ready reserve of hormone
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

E

10

which of the following hormones is effective when taken orally
a. estrogen
b. cortisone
c. insulin
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

D

11

which of the following is not typically caused by a hormone
a. synthesis of new molecules
b. alteration of plasma membrane permeability
c. stimulating the contraction of skeletal muscles
d. alteration of the rate of metabolism
e. stimualtion of secretion

C

12

which of the following hromones is able to alter gene expression in the mitochondria
a. glucagon
b. epinephrine
c. insulin
d. thyroid hormone
e. growth hormone

D

13

Calcitonin and parathyroid hormones have opposite effects on blood Ca2+ level, therefore they are considered to be
a. synergists
b. permissive
c. antagonist
d. repressive
e. agonistic

C

14

how is hormone secretion regulated
a. by the nervous system
b. by other hormones
c. by changes in blood composition
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

E

15

the hypothalamus
a. is a link between the endocrine and nervous system
b. release oxytocin and ADH into the blood but does not produce them
c. regulates the posterior pituitary gland via releasing and inhibiting hormones
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

A

16

the pituitary gland
a. lies in the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
b. consists of two lobes, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis
c. develops from outgrowths of endoderm
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

B

17

the anterior pituitary gland
a. contains two cell types and secretes four different hormones
b. is regulated largely by positive feedback mechanisms and hormones from the pineal gland
c. regulates the function of some other endocrine glands by secreting hormones called tropins
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

C

18

which of the folliwng is not associated with hGH
a. secreted by the most numerous cells in the adenohypophysis
b. increase protein synthesis
c. stimulate production and release of insulin-like growth factors
d. decrease lipolysis
e. spare glucose for use by the nervous system

D

19

If a person is fasting and their blood glucose level falls to 50 mg/dL, which of the following effects will the fast have on their endocrine system
a. less GHIH will be released from the hypothalamus
b. less GHRH will be released from the hypothalamus
c. less GH will be released from the anterior pituitary gland
d. less IGF will be released from the liver and other tissues
e. less glycogenolyis will occur in the liver

A

20

which of the following is correct
a. only females produce prolactin
b. increased levels of stress may cause increased secretion of ACTH
c. MSH is required for normal thyroid functions in humans
d. LH inhibits ovulation
e. TSH stimulates calcitonin production

B

21

the posterior pituitary gland
a. is also called the adenopypophysis
b. contains pituicytes and the axons of neurons that originate in the hypothalamus
c. synthesize ADH and OT
d. releases ADH and OT into the hypophyseal artery
e. all of these are correct

B

22

oxytocin
a. is made by femals, but not males
b. inhibits uterine contractions
c. stimulates ejection of milk from the breast
d. may be responsible for arousal before sexual intercourse
e. helps retain the attachment between the placenta and the uterus

C

23

ADH
a. is also called vasopressin
b. inhibits loss of water via urination
c. decreases loss of water via perspiration
d. helps regulate blood pressure
e. all of the above

E

24

the thyroid gland
a. lies posterior and superior to the larynx
b. contains follicular cells that secrete calcitonin
c. contains parafollicular cells that secrete T3/T4
d. helps regulate metabolism and Ca2+ levels
e. is embedded within the parathyroid gland

D

25

Which of the following would NOT be a possible outcome of elevated TSH secretion
a. increased TRH synthesis
b. increased T3/T4 synthesis
c. increased body temperature
d. decreased blood cholesterol levels
e. increased lipolysis

A

26

increased levels of thyroid hormones would
a. decrease basal metabolic rate
b. up regulate beta receptors
c. impair body growth
d. decrease the effects of norepinephrine on the heart and blood vessels
e. decrease protein synthesis

B

27

calcitonin
a. is synthesized by the parathyroid glands
b. acts primarily on osteoblasts
c. decreases blood Ca2+ levels
d. acts synergistically with calcitrol
e. acts permissively with PTH

C

28

the parathyroid glands
a. are on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
b. contain chief cells, which secrete PTH
c. are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

E

29

How does PTH increase blod Ca2+ levels
a. by increasing ostoclasts activity
b. by increasing renal excretion of Ca2+
c. by decreasing renal excretion of HPO4 2-
d. by decreasing renal production of calcitrol
e. all of the above

A

30

the adrenal glands
a. lie superior and medial to the kidneys
b. have an inner medulla derived from embryonic ectoderm
c. have an outer cortex that secretes hormones critical to maintenance of homeostasis
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

E

31

which adrenal cortex layer is correctly matched to the regulatory function of its product
a. zona glomerulosa: female libido, axillary and pubic hair production
b. zona fasiculata: blood sugar level, inflammation, conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine
c. zona reticularis: blood Na+ and K+ levels; blood volume and blood pressure
d. a and b are correct
e. a, b, and c are correct

B

32

aldosterone
a. is classified as a glucocorticoid
b. is secreted in response to elevated blood pressure
c. is responsible for increased retention of Na+ by the kidneys
d. is responsible for increased retention of K+ by the kidneys
e. is released from the adrenal cortex in response to direct stimulation by renin

C

33

which of the following is NOT an effect of cortisol
a. increased proteolysis in muscle fibers
b. increased gluconeogenesis in the liver
c. icreased lipolysis in adipose tissue
d. increased immune response to infection
e. increased response to hormones that elevate blood pressure

D

34

the adrenal medulla
a. encloses the adrenal cortex
b. is a modified parasympathetic ganglion
c. contains chromaffin cells that primarily secrete norepinephrine
d. contains an enzyme that converts epinephrine to norepinephrine if cortisol is present
e. secretes hormones that intensify the fight-or-flight response

E

35

A child spent the day eating sweets. How did his body maintain his blood glucose level within normal range
a. by increasing glucagon secretion
b. by increasing cortisol secretion
c. by increasing insulin secretion
d. by increasing hGH secretion
e. by increasing ACTH secretion

C

36

which of the following hormones is produced by both the ovaries and the testes
a. estrogen
b. inhibin
c. progesterone
d. testosterone
FSH

B

37

which of the following hormones is correctly matched to its source and functions
a. melatonin: pituitary gland; controls mood
b. thymosin: thyroid gland; regulates metabolism
c. gastrin kidney; controls blood pressure
d. ANP: heart; regulates blood Ca2+
e. EPO: kidney; stimulates formation of red blood cells

E

38

which of the following is not correct
a. a change in the environment that produces a stress response is a stressor
b. eustress is productive stress that allows the body or mind to meet challenges
c. distress is stress that disrupts homeostasis
d. the stress response is controlled primarily by the medulla oblongata
e. the stress response occurs in fight-or-flight, resistance and exhaustion stages

D

39

the fight-or-flight response
a. is the body's immediate response to a real or perceived threat to survival
b. elevates heart and respiration rates and blood glucose level
c. decreases urinary and digestive functions
d. activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway
e. all of the above

E

40

which of the following disorders and hormonal imbalances is correctly matched
a. diabetes insipidus: decreased insulin response
b. acromegaly: excessive hGH secretion after epiphyseal plate closes
c. diabetes mellitus: decreased ADH secretion
d. pheochromocytoma: excessive thyroid hormone production
e. cretinism: excessive cortisol production

B