Jennifer could care less about getting to the party on time.
Jennifer could not (couldn't) care less about getting to the party on time.
Your so funny!
You're so funny!
- your: showing ownership; you own something (e.g. your jacket)
- you're: you are (e.g. You're fired; You're my friend)
a figurative expression
- Example: She's pulling my leg. (She is not literally pulling on your leg.)
- The English language is estimated to have about 25,000 idioms
What is the difference between e.g. and i.e.?
e.g. is used when listing examples: "The supermarket had every kind of fruit you could want (e.g. apples, bananas, mangos, blueberries)."
i.e. is used for clarification of an idea: "The supermarket had green apples, i.e., a round fruit with a green exterior and a tart taste."
affect / effect
affect: to influence
effect: a result
- Literally means "and other things"
- Full Latin spelling: et cetera
- "The band members packed their instruments for the concert: trumpets, trombones, tubas, etc."
principal / principle
principle: a rule
col, com, con
- collectively (all together)
- communal (shared)
- conjoined (stuck together)
between or amongst
- international (between nations)
- intercede (to come between)
stationary / stationery
stationary: standing still
stationery: formal writing paper, envelopes
against or not
- dislike (not like)
- disconnected (not connected)
- disarray (not in order)
allowed / aloud
aloud: out loud
For all intensive purposes, this is the same homework assignment Mr. Andrews gave us yesterday.
For all intents and purposes, this is the same homework assignment Mr. Andrews gave us yesterday.
ascent / assent
- antibody (a protein that targets foreign agents in the body)
- antithesis (a contrasting idea)
What is a conjunction?
a word that connects ideas
pedal / petal / peddle
pedal: lever operated by one's foot
petal: leaves of a flower
peddle: to sell
Mark was suppose to pick up the pizza on his way home.
Mark was supposed to pick up the pizza on his way home.
across, beyond, or to change
- transform (to change in structure or composition)
- transoceanic (beyond the ocean)
their / there / they're
their: showing ownership
there: indicating direction
they're: they are
against, not, or opposite
- unceasing (never ending)
- unequal (not equal)
What is a noun?
a person, place, thing, or idea
- New York City
to / too / two
to: a preposition that indicates direction or relationship
too: also, an excessive amount
two: the number "2"
- precede (to be earlier than)
- precaution (care taken beforehand)
What is an adjective?
a describing word
bare / bear
bare: empty or uncovered.
bear: to handle or hold; the animals in the Ursidae family.
Shelly use to play the drums.
Shelly used to play the drums.
in, im, il, ir
- not: irreplaceable, illegitimate
- in/upon: impress, irradiate
What is the correct usage of "who" and "whom"?
Use who when referring to the subject of the sentence. Whom is not used to refer to the subject.
Alternatively, you could think of it this way:
- Who can be replaced by I, he, she, or they. Who can bring these groceries in the house? He can bring these groceries in the house.
- Whom can be replaced by me, him, her, them. With whom am I speaking? You are speaking to him.
out of or away from
- exhale (to breathe out)
- extroversion (interest in one's surroundings)
What is a pronoun?
a word that replaces a noun
weather / whether
weather: the climate condition outside
whether: an expression of choice
We flocked towards the exit when the alarm went off.
We flocked toward the exit when the alarm went off.
While toward is used in America and Canadian English, places otherthan North America more often use towards. However, this is not a definite rule both can be used according to preference.
good or well
- benign (not harmful)
- benediction (a blessing)
What is a preposition?
a word that relates other words
Examples of prepositions:
dic, dict, dit
to say or speak
- diction (way of speaking)
- edict (a statement by an authority)
council / counsel
council: a group of advisors
counsel: to advise
ensure / insure
ensure: to make certain
insure: to provide insurance, compensation in the face of an unforeseen event
bad or badly
- malformation (bad structure)
- malady (disease of the body)
medal / metal
medal: award worn around the neck
metal: shiny material
What is an adverb?
A word used to qualify another word such as a verb, adjective, or adverb.
- chronology (timeline)
- chronic (lasting a long time)
it's / its
it's: it is
its: possession of something
dual / duel
dual: both; two parts
duel: a battle between two people
What is a verb?
an action word
lose / loose
lose: to be defeated
loose: not tight
farther / further
farther: a physical distance; "Are we almost home? How much farther?"
further: a metaphorical distance; "Do you have any further questions?"
What is an article?
An adjective that qualifies whether a noun is general or specific:
- the chair (specific, or definite article)
- a chair (general, or indefinite article)
than / then
than: a comparison word
then: indicating an order of events in time
- antebellum (before a war)
- antecedent (one that precedes another)
What is an interjection?
A greeting or emotional exclamation
complement / compliment
complement: to go well together
compliment: a positive remark
- unicorn (mythical horse with one horn)
- unanimous (of one mind)
A clause that has a subject, verb, and can stand alone as a sentence is called a(n) __________ clause. (e.g. "Tom can sing.")
- "Tom can sing."
- Tom is the subject
- Sing is the verb
- The sentence forms a complete idea
A clause that has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete idea (and therefore cannot stand alone as a sentence) is called a(n) __________ clause. (e.g. "Since Tom can sing, ...")
subordinate / dependent
- "Since Tom can sing..."
- Tom is the subject
- Sing is the verb
- The sentence is not a complete idea (Since Tom can sing... what?)
What is the difference between active and passive voice?
In sentences written in the active voice, the subject and action come first and are clearly connected.- "Steve ate all the cookies."
In sentences written in the passive voice, the object of the action takes the position of the subject.- "All the cookies were eaten by Steve."