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Flashcards in Essential Vocabulary Deck (66)
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1
Define the following U.S. government term:

representative democracy/republic

form of government in which citizens elect representatives to a legislature

  • based on the idea that every citizen deserves to participate in government, whether directly or indirectly
  • unlike a monarchy because leadership positions are not inherited

2
Define the following U.S. government term:

statism

a political system in which the state has substantial centralized control over social and economic affairs

3
Define the following U.S. government term:

federalism

a system of shared powers between the central and state governments

4
Define the following U.S. government term:

plurality

the most votes in an election, yet not necessarily a total majority

5
Define the following U.S. government term:

Federalist Party

late 18th to early 19th-century political party that supported a strong centralized government

6
Define the following U.S. government term:

Anti-Federalist Party

political party that opposed a strong centralized government, fearing it would take away the rights of states

7
Define the following U.S. government term:

initiative

a petition that is put to a public vote

  • requires a certain number of signatures
  • also known as a citizen's initiative
  • form of direct democracy

8
Define the following U.S. government term:

referendum

national or local vote to reject or accept a proposal

  • also known as a ballot question
  • form of direct democracy

9
Define the following U.S. government term:

recall

a direct vote to end an elected official's term

  • occurs after enough citizens have signed a petition
  • also known as a recall referendum or recall election

10
Define the following U.S. government term:

judicial review

a re-examination of a case by a higher court after a lower court is deemed incorrect in its rulings

The Supreme Court has the power to review laws and treaties and deem any of them constitutional or unconstitutional.

 

11
Define the following U.S. government term:

executive order

command given by the U.S. President or a state governor

  • based on constitutional powers or laws passed by Congress
  • carries the full force of the law

12
Define the following U.S. government term:

impoundment

refusal of the U.S. government to spend funds allocated by Congress

  • done in an effort to reduce debt
  • banned in 1974

13
Define the following U.S. government term:

express powers

powers explicitly given to the federal government in the U.S. Constitution

  • also known as enumerated powers
  • listed in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution

14
Define the following U.S. government term:

implied powers

the powers of Congress not explicitly noted in the Constitution

needed to enforce enumerated powers

15
Define the following U.S. government term:

concurrent powers

powers belonging both to the state and federal government

e.g., charging taxes, protecting the environment, and borrowing money

16
Define the following U.S. government term:

centralists

those who favor the concentration of power in a higher form of government

17
Define the following U.S. government term:

decentralists

those who want to share power between local, state, and federal authorities

18
Define the following U.S. government term:

capitalism

economic system in which means of production (land and factories) are privately owned rather than owned by the government

  • operated for profit
  • developed during the Industrial Revolution

19
Define the following U.S. government term:

liberal

In the modern political
context, one who: 

  • believes the government's duty is to promote equality
  • champions minorities, the poor, and disadvantaged
  • usually supports environmental causes and opposes extravagant military spending

20
Define the following U.S. government term:

conservative

In the modern political
context, one who: 

  • usually opposes government intervention in social and economic areas
  • conversely, prefers a strong army
  • generally champions traditional religions

21
Define the following U.S. government term:

socialism

economic system in which workers control the means of production and all wealth is evenly distributed

  • in Marxist theory, it is marked by an unequal distribution of goods and pay
  • current nations include China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam
  • it has inspired programs and institutions, however, that exist in many countries including the U.S.

22
Define the following U.S. government term:

Manifest Destiny

19th-century belief that the U.S. had the God-given right to acquire and control all of North America

23
Define the following U.S. government term:

lobbying

attempts to influence government action by an individual, a legislator, or an advocacy group

24
Define the following U.S. government term:

nonpartisan election

election where candidates run without formal affiliation to any political party

25
Define the following U.S. government term:

caucus

forum where party leaders debate issues, discuss the party platform, and choose delegates for the national convention

26
Define the following U.S. government term:

party convention

forum where members of a specific party discuss their platform and select their Presidential candidate

27
Define the following U.S. government term:

direct primary

an initial election (for a particular party) where popular vote decides the candidates who will move onto the next phase

28
Define the following U.S. government term:

open primary

forum where any registered voter can vote to choose the party's political candidate

form of direct primary

29
Define the following U.S. government term:

closed primary

forum where members of a specific political party vote to choose the party's  candidate

form of direct primary

30
Define the following U.S. government term:

turnout

percentage of qualified citizens who actually vote