Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy 2 > Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (189):
0

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid center of ossification?

Tip of the dens synchondrosis

1

At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification appear?

Sometime in early adolescence

2

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid proces centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?

Terminal ossicle

3

What is the incidence of rib related changes following dorsalization of c7?

From one-half to two and one-half percent of the population

4

What alteration in C6 facet orientation may accompany dorsalization?

C6 demonstrates a change in inferior articular facet orientation from forward lateral and downward to forward medial and downward. Superior facet unchanged

5

What percent of the population may demonstrait thoracic like features at C7?

Up to 46%

6

What T1 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?

The superior articular facet may change from BUL to BUM inferior unchanged

7

What is the incidence of cervicalization of T1 in the population?

Up to 28% of population

8

What rib-related changes may accompany lmbarization of T12?

A significant shortening of the mean relative length of 113 mm of the twelfth rib or it becomes absent

9

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

The superior araticular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral to concave, back, upward, and medial. Inferior facet unchanged

10

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1?

The failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

11

What is characteristic of sacralization of L5?

L5 may be partially or completely fused to the sacrum

12

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?

L5

14

What is the incidence of variation within the sacrococcygeal region in the population?

Up to 14 percent

15

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical spine?

Centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops the head is held upright and the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

16

At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?

Usually between the third and fourth month after birth.

17

What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?

Between occiput and C1

18

What is the name given to the primary cervical curve?

Cervical kyphosis

19

What is the name What is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?

Cervical curve CT1; cervical enlargment C3-T1

20

What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?>

Crawling and walking

21

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

crawling will cause abdomen to put tension on lumbar region and pulls it forward

Muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars

Intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior

walking will further promote muscle and IVD development

22

What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?

They appear after 6 years old

23

What is the relationship between cure direction and handedness?

Right handed person has a high probability for right thoracic, left lumbar combo

24

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures aloneg the vertebral column were stressed in class?

Military neck, humpback or hunchback, or swayback

25

What is military neck?>

Decreased anterior curve in the cervical region, a straight neck

26

What is a swayback?

An increased anterior curve in the lumbar region

27

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

A kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

28

What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?

A kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve

29

What are the curve classifications for swayback?

A lordosis or hyperlordotic curve

30

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?

Magnitude, Location, Direction, Etiology, and structural/non-structural

31

What is often used to measure the magnitude of scoliosis?

The Cobb Method

32

Based on age of onset, what are the types of idiopathic scoliosis

Infantile, Juvenile, and adolescent

33

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis

Left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

34

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis

Right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12 % - 21% incidence

35

Identify the curve direction, location gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

Right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

36

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening

The greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, the more likely to worsen

37

Which muscles are identified as erector spine or sacrospinalis muscles?

Iliocostalis, Longissimus, Spinalis

38

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis primarily originates and inserts on ribs?

Iliocostalis Thoracis

39

Which muscles are identified as transversospinalis muscles?

semispinalis, multifidis, and rotators

40

How many vertebrae can be attached to a single segment by transversospinalis muscles?

As many as nine vertebrae

41

What segment will represent the lowest attachment site for the semispinalis thoracics?

T12

42

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the semispinalis capitis?

Transverse tubercles of C7, T1-T6 or T7 & articular processes of C4-C6

43

The semispinalis capitis and spinals capitis may fuse to form what muscle?

Biventer Cervicis

44

Which muscles are representative of muscle layer two in the neck?

Splenius cervicis, splenius capitis

45

Which muscles are representative of muscle layer three in the neck

Semispinalis capitis, spinais capitis

46

Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine?

Multifidis

47

Which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the expected origin - insertion combination?

Iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum, longissimus thoracic pars lumborum and multifidus lumborum

48

Which sub occipital muscle lacks an attachment to the skull?

Oblique capités inferior

49

What is the origin go the obliquus capitis inferior

C2 spinous process and lamina

50

An increase in the density of muscle spindles is most apparent in which sub occipital muscle?

Obliquus capités inferior

51

Suboccipital muscle feedback relays to what aditional locations in the brain?

Extraocular nuclei of origin, primary visual cortex and vestibular nuclei

52

What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group?

Postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

53

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?

Acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with intertransversarii to coordinate the smooth movment of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

54

WHich of the cervical intertransversarii is intervated by dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves?

Posterior medial belly, cervical intertransversarii

55

What is the origin of the medial belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

Accessory process of transverse process L1-L4 mammillary process of superior articular process L1-L4

56

Which of the lumbar intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves?

Medial belly, lumbar intertransversarii

57

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii?

Acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate the smooth movment of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

58

What is the insertion of the middle scalene?

Between the tubercle and groove for the subclavian artery on the first rib

59

What is the insertion of the posterior scalene?

Outer surface of second rib

60

The quadratus lumborum is implicated in the formation of which ligament?

The iliolumbar ligament

61

What are the possible locations of bipolar neurons?

The nasal olfactory epithelium, the retina, the vestibular or Scarp's ganglion, and the chochlear or spiral ganglion

62

What are the possible locations of pseudounipolar neurons?

Any sensory ganglion other than those of the eighth cranial nerve

63

What are the examples of multipolar neurons?

Stellate neurons, the motor neurons of brain and spinal cord
Pyrmidal neurons of cerberal cortex
Projection neurons or Golgi type 1 Purkinje cells of cortex
Local circuit neurons or Golgi 2 granule cells of cerebral and cerebellar cortex and neurons of the motor ganglia

64

What do baroreceptors monitor?

Blood pressure by evaluating stretch or tension along the length of the receptor ending

65

What is the site or location for baroreceptors?

Specialized vascular sinuses

66

What are the general types of distribution-function sensory receptor endings?

Exteroceptors, proprioceptors, interoceptors

67

What are the types and examples of exteroceptors?

(a) general or cutaneous sense organs such as free nerve endings, encapsulated endings and epidermal endings

(b) special sense receptors for olfaction, vision, hearing and taste

68

What are the examples of proprioceptors?

Golgi tendon organs, neuromuscular spindles, Pacinian corpuscles, inner ear receptors for equuilibrium and specialized receptors in joints

69

Where will the interoceptors be located?

In viscera, glands, and blood vessels

70

What are the examples of interoceptors?

Free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, chemoreceptors and baroreceptors

71

What are the examples of epidermal nerve endings?

Palisade nerve endings, Merkel cell endings and Ruffini corpuscles or Ruffini nerve endings

72

What is the example of tactile corpuscles?

Meissner's corpuscles

73

Which type of encapsulated nerve ending is sensitive to vibration?

Lamellated corpuscles or Pacinian corpuscles

74

What is the example of the neurotendinous nerve ending?

Golgi tendon organs

75

What are the primary neuronal projections observed in a nerve?

Peripheral sensory processes and motor nerve fibers

76

Contrast the sensory ganglion with the motor ganglion

Sensory ganglia contain primary sensory neuron cell bodies and lack synapses; motor ganglia contain secondary motor neuron cell bodies and always demonstrate synapses

77

What is another name for a sensory neuron?

Afferent neuron

78

What are the parts of a primary sensory neuron?

Sensory receptor ending, peripheral sensory process, perikaryon, central sensory process, synaptic ending

79

Where is the cell body of a primary sensory neuron located?

In a sensory ganglion

80

What is the region in the encephalon where central sensory processes synapse?

Nucleus of termination

81

What is the loction for secondary sensory neurons in the spinal cord?

Dorsal horn

82

Muscles derived from somites are innervated by which cranial nerves?

Cranial nerve 3 or oculomoter nerve, cranial nerve 4 or trochlear nerve, cranial nerve VI or abducens nerve and cranial nerve XII or hypoglossal nerve

83

Muscles derived from the branchial or pharyngeal arches are innervated by which cranial nerves?

Cranial nerve V or trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve X or vagus nerve and cranial nerve XI or spinal accessory nerve

84

What peripheral nerves contain visceral efferent pathways at their origin?

Cranial nerve III or oculomotor nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve X or vagus nerve as well as spinal nerves T1-T12, L1, L2 and S2-S4

85

Identify the type of motor pathway associated with each type of muscle

Somatic and branchial motor pathways terminate on skeletal muscle autonomic/involuntary/visceral pathways terminate on smooth and cardiac muscle

86

What are the subdivisions of the visceral division of the peripheral nerve system?

Sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric

87

What is the region in the central nerve system where sympathetic efferent neuron cell bodies for spinal nerves are located?

Lateral horn of T1-T12, L1, L2 cord levels

88

What is the comparative length of the axons associated with the sympathetic efferent pathway?

Preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers are relatively short; postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers are relatively long

89

What cells derived from the neural crest where emphasized in class?

Secondary sympathetic efferent neurons and adrenal medulla chromaffin cells

90

Primary parasympathetic efferent neurons will be associated with which cranial nerves?

Cranial nerve III or oculomotor nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve and cranial nerve X or vagus nerve

91

Primary parasympathetic efferent neurons will be associated with which spinal nerves?

Spinal nerves S2-S4

92

What is the name given to and neuroactive substance associated with postganglionic parasympatheic efferent pathways?

Cholingeric fibers; acetylcholine

93

What is the comparative length of the axons associated with parasympathetic efferent pathways?

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers are relatively long;

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers are relatively short

94

Sesker is a Homo

...Duhh lol

95

What types of efferent neurons form nuclei of origin in the brain?

Somatic neurons, brachial neurons, and primary parasympathetic neurons

96

Will sympathetic efferent neurons be located in the brain?

No

97

What are the target organs for branchial efferents or somatic efferents?

Skeletal muscles

98

What are the ultimate target organs for parasympathetic efferents?

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular tissue, and specialized cells

99

Which cranial nerves have sensory pathways that are atypical of the majority of sensory pathways?

Olfactory or cranial nerve I, optic or cranial nerve II, and trigeminal or cranial nerve V

100

What do somatic afferents monitor?

Pain, Temperature, light touch and proprioception

101

What do visceral afferents monitor?

Baroreception, chemoreception, sensation from viscera

102

What do special visceral afferents monitor?

Olfaction and taste

103

What do special sensory afferents monitor?

Vision, hearing, equilibrium

104

Cranial nerve I is an example of which classification of sensory pathway?

Special visceral afferent

105

What is the site for the detection of smell?

The olfactory mucosa of the nasal cavity

106

What is the morphological classification of the primary sensory neuron of the first cranial nerve?

Bipolar neuron

107

What is unusual about the receptor ending of the primary olfactory neuron?

It is an olfactory knob covered with olfactory cilia

108

What do central processes of the first cranial nerve bundle together to form?

Fila Olfactoria

109

What forms the true olfactory nerve?

Fila Olfactoria

110

What forms the traditional or classic first cranial nerve?

The olfactory bulb and olfactory tract

111

What is the exit site for the first cranial nerve?

Cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

112

Secondary afferent neuron cell bodies of the first cranial nerve are primarily located in what structure?

Olfactory Bulb

113

What is the location for synapse between primary and secondary afferent neurons of the first cranial nerve?

Olfactory Glomerulus

114

What is the name of the traditional secondary afferent neuron of the first cranial nerve?

Mitral cell

115

Cranial nerve II is an example of which classification of sensory pathway?

Special sensory

116

What are the receptor neurons of the second cranial nerve?

Rod and cone photoreceptor cells

117

What is the function of the cone cell?

Provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision

118

What is the function of the rod cell?

Provide vision in dim light conditions

119

What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?

Rods

120

What is the primary afferent neuron of the second cranial nerve>

Bipolar cell

121

Where are the primary sensory neurons of the second cranial nerve located?

The retina

122

What is the secondary sensory neuron of the second cranial nerve?

Ganglion Cell

123

What forms the optic nerve?

Axons of ganglion cells

124

What is the exit site for the second cranial nerve?

Optic canal of the sphenoid bone

125

The optic nerve will enter which fossa of the cranial vault?

Middle cranial fossa

126

What occurs at the optic chiasma?

Part of the optic nerve decussates

127

What part of the visual pathway connects the optic chiasma to the brain?

The optic tract

128

Axons carried in the second cranial nerve will synapse in what specific location?

Lateral geniculate nucleus

129

What is the location for tertiary neurons of the visual pathway?

Lateral geniculate nucleus

130

Axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus will synapse in what specific location?

Primary visual cortex, calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum

131

At its apparent origin cranial nerve III conveys which classifications of neural pathways?

Somatic efferent pathway and visceral efferent pathway

132

What is the somatic efferent nucleus of origin for the third cranial nerve?

Oculomotor nuclear complex

133

What is the location of the apparent origin of the third cranial nerve?

The midbrain

134

The apparent origin of the third cranial nerve is first observed in which cranial fossa?

The posterior cranial fossa

135

What is the exit from the cranial vault for the third cranial nerve?

Superior orbital fissure; Sphenoid bone

136

Which extrinsic muscle/s of the eye is/are innervated by the third cranial nerve?

Medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, and inferior oblique

137

Which non-ocular muscle is innervated by the third cranial nerve?

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the eyelid

138

Which visceral efferent pathway is conveyed in the third cranial nerve?

A parasympathetic motor pathway

139

Visceral efferent pathway is conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?

Accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal

140

What is the location of synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?

Ciliary ganglion

141

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve are carried in which nerve?

Short cilia nerve

142

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in what targets?

Sphincter pupillae & ciliaris intrinsic eye muscles

143

Does the apparent origin of cranial nerve III contain somatic afferent fibers?

No

144

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the third cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial nerve branch?

Ophthalmic division of trigeminal

145

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the third cranial nerve travel to pseudo unipolar sensory neuron cell bodies located in which ganglion?

Gasserian ganglion, semilunar ganglion or trigeminal ganglion

146

Central sensory processes from the Gasserian ganglion, semilunar ganglion or trigeminal ganglion are conveyed to the pons in what structure?

The sensory root of the trigeminal nerve

147

The sensory root of the trigeminal nerve will have an apparent origin from what part of the encephalon?

The pons

148

Typically, primary afferent neurons of the third cranial nerve located in the semilunar ganglion, Gasserian ganglion or tirgeminal ganglion will synapse in what nucleus?

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

149

Which of the cranial nuclei of termination contain primary afferent neurons?

Mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve

150

In the somatic afferent pathway of cranial nerve III, neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus may synapse at what locations?

Oculomotor nuclear complex or spinal trigeminal nucleus

151

At its apparent origin cranial nerve IV conveys which classification of neural pathways?

Somatic efferent pathway

152

What is the location for multipolar somatic efferent neurons of the fourth cranial nerve?

Trochlear motor nucleus

153

Somatic efferent fibers from the left nucleus of the fourth cranial nerve will have an apparent origin from which side?

Right side

154

What are the two unique features of the fourth cranial nerve?

It is the only cranial with an apparent origin from the dorsal surface of the brain; it is the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus

155

The right fourth cranial nerve will innervate which side target muscle?

The right side muscle

156

The fourth cranial nerve wil originiate in which cranial fosssa?

The posterior cranial fossa

157

The fourth cranial nerve exits the cranial vault by way of which opening?

Superior orbital fissure; sphenoid bone

158

Somatic efferent fibers from the fourth cranial nerve will innervate which muscle(s)?

Superior oblique extrinsic muscle of the eye

159

Does the apparent origin of cranial nerve IV contain somatic afferent fibers?

No

160

What part of the fourth cranial nerve contains somatic afferent fibers?

Only the distal part of the nerve

161

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the fourth cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial nerve branch?

Ophthalmic division of trigeminal

162

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the fourth cranial nerve travel to pseudo unipolar sensory neuron cell bodies located in which ganglion?

Gasserian ganglion, semilunar ganglion or trigeminal ganglion

163

The fifth cranial nerve is functionally referred to as the

Great sensory nerve of the face

164

The fifth cranial nerve arises from what part of the brain?

The pons

165

The apparent origin of the fifth cranial nerve is in which cranial fossa?

The posterior cranial fossa

166

Identify each branch of the fifth cranial nerve arising from its ganglion

Ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, mandibular nerve

167

What is the exit site from the cranial vault for each division of the fifth cranial nerve?

Ophthalmic nerve - superior orbital fissure, maxillary nerve - foramen rotundum, mandibular nerve - foramen ovale

168

What location will each branch of the fifth cranial nerve pass into upon exit form the cranial vault?

Ophthalmic nerve - orbit; maxillary nerve - pterogyopalatine region; mandibular nerve - infratemporal region

169

The motor root of cranial nerve V will join which division?

Mandibular nerve

170

At its apparent origin cranial nerve V conveys which classification of neural pathways?

Somatic afferent pathway and branchial efferent pathway

171

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve contain somatic afferent pathways?

All three

172

Central sensory processes carried in the fifth cranial nerve synapse with secondary sensory neuron cell bodies in what location?

Mainly in the principal sensory nucleus; some in the trigeminal spinal nucleus

173

Branchial efferent fibers arise from multipolar neurons in what nucleus?

Trigeminal motor nucleus

174

The mandibular division of the fifth cranial nerve exits the cranial vault via which opening and enters into what region of the head?

The foramen oval; the infra temporal region

175

What muscles are innervated by branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the fifth cranial nerve?

Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani and tensor veil palatini

176

What are the names of the muscles of mastication?

Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid

177

Peripheral sensory process from which receptors located in the muscles of mastication are conveyed in which branch of the fifth cranial nerve?

Mandibular division of trigeminal

178

Afferent neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus that are associate with sensation from the muscles of mastication will synapse at what locations?

Trigeminal motor nucleus or spinal trigeminal nucleus

179

At its apparent origin cranial nerve VI conveys which classification of neural pathways?

Somatic efferent pathway

180

What is the name of the sixth cranial nerve?

Abducent nerve or abducens nerve

181

What is the site of the apparent origin of the sixth cranial nerve from the brain?

The pons

182

What is the efferent nucleus for the sixth cranial nerve?

Abducens motor nucleus or abducent motor nucleus

183

The sixth cranial nerve will innervate what target organ (s)?

Lateral rectus extrinsic muscle of the eye

184

Peripheral sensory process conveyed in the sixth cranial nerve travel to pseudo unipolar sensory neuron cell bodies located in which ganglion?

Gasserian ganglion, semilunar ganglion, or trigeminal ganglion

185

Peripheral sensory process conveyed in the sixth cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial nerve branch?

Ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve

186

Typically, primary afferent neurons of the sixth cranial nerve located in the semilunar ganglion, Gasserian ganglion or trigeminal ganglion will synapse in what nucleus?

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

187

Recently, peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the sixth cranial nerve have been shown to originate from primary afferent neurons in which location?

Mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve

188

Which of the cranial nuclei of termination contain primary afferent neurons?

Mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve

189

In the somatic afferent pathway of cranial nerve VI, neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus may synapse at what locations?

Abducent or abducens motor nucleus or spinal trigeminal nucleus