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Flashcards in Exam One Review Deck (47):
1

At what age do the epiphyseal plates fuse?

16-20

2

When do the pedicles fuse?

3-6 years old

3

When do the Laminae fuse?

In the first year of life

4

When do the SP fuse?

Around 16

5

When do the TVP fuse?

Around age 16

6

Before 40yo, _____% of the load compresses on the cortex. After 40, it increases to _____%

45

65

7

Before 40, ____% of the load compresses on the cancellous bone. After 40, it changes to _____%.

55%

35%

8

Overall greatest ROM in the spine is in what section of the spine?

C4-6

9

Greatest flexion and extension of facet joints is in what section of the spine?

C5-6

10

Greatest overall ROM in the lumbar spine?

L4-5

11

Greatest flexion and extension in Lumbar spine

L5 & S1

12

ROM associated with lumbar

Flexion/rotation
Little lateral bending
No rotation

13

ROM associated with thoracic spine

Rotation
Some flexion
Little extension

14

ROM associated with cervical

Flexion/extension
Greatest overall ROM
Rotate
Lateral flexion

15

Intrinsic muscles of the back

Erector spinae (ILS)
Splenius capitis and cervices
Longus capitis and coli
Quadratus lumborum

16

Extrinsic muscles of the back

Traps
Lats
Rhomboids
Levator scapulae

17

Intermediate extrinsic muscles of the back

Serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior inferior

18

Transversospinal muscle group

Semispinalis muscles (3)
Multifidus
Rotatores

19

Intervertebral muscles

Rotatores
Interspinales
Intertransversalas
Intertransversarii

20

Suboccipital muscle group

Rectus capitis posterior major
Rectus capitis posterior minor
Obliquus capitis inferior
Obliquus capitis superior

21

Anterolateral Neck Muscles

Scalenes (3)

22

Cervical Facet joints are oriented in what plane?

Coronal

23

Thoracic facet joints are located in what plane?

Coronal

24

Lumbar facet joints are oriented in what plane?

Sagittal

25

Cervical SAP orientation

Face superior and posterior - 45 degrees

26

Cervical IAP orientation

Face inferior and anterior - 45 degrees

27

Thoracic SAP orientation

Posterior and superior - 60 degrees from horizontal - 20 degree lateral rotation

28

Thoracic IAP orientation

Anterior and inferior - 60 degrees to horizontal - 20 degree medial rotation

29

Lumbar SAP orientation

Mostly medial - rotated 45 degree medially

30

Lumbar IAP orientation

Mostly lateral - 45 lateral rotation

31

Number of vertebra in each segment

Cervical: 7
Thoracic: 12
Lumbar: 5
Sacrum
Coccyx

Total: 26

32

Variations as far as number of vertebra most commonly occurs in which segment?

Lumbar

33

X axis

Flex and rotate (middle finger)

34

Y axis

Left and Right rotation (thumb)

35

Z axis

Left and right lateral flexion (index finger)

36

The child is an individual up to age _____

8

37

What are epiphyseal plates

(AKA growth plates)
Ring of hard compact bone that surrounds the superior and inferior surfaces of vertebral bodies

38

How many vertebra does the spine of a child have?

Spine: 24
Sacrum: 5
Coccyx: 4

Total: 33

39

When do the sacral segments fuse?

First 3: 9-11
Last 2: 18-20

40

When does the coccyx fuse?

One segment ossifies every 5 years

Becomes one bone age 25-30

41

What is the tripod theory?

The axial compression on any vertebrae is borne by the 1) vertebral body and (2,3) the two superior articular processes

42

What is the least reliable palpation contact?

Spinous Process

43

What forms the roof of the intervertebral foramen (IVF)

ROOF: inferior pedicle notch of vertebra above

44

What forms the floor of the IVF?

Superior pedicle notch of the vertebra below

45

What are the three types of spina bifida?

Occulta
Meningocele
Myelomeningocele

46

Which muscle does NOT contribute to the suboccipital triangle?

Rectus capitis posterior minor

47

What are the three layers of the articular capsule?

Synovial membrane
Loose connective tissue (vascular)
Connective tissue (sensory nerve supply)