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Flashcards in Exam Qs Deck (75):
1

name cells that secerete histamine in stomach

ECF-like cells

2

Symptoms of TACS, PACS, lacunar

TACS - HHHH - all - hemiparesis, hemisensory loss, hemianopia, higher cerebral dysfunction
PACS - 2 of HHH or just higher cerebral
lacunar - motor or sensory or motor-sensory or ataxic

3

what is higher cererbal dysfunction

lack of attention, language disorder, visiospatial disorder, memory, personality change, apraxia

4

function of temporal lobe and parietal lobe

temporal - memory, language (wernickes in dominant), hearing
parietal - dom - logic, calculation, speech, recognising objects, sensory integration
non dom - visiospatial (hemineglect), arts,

5

symptoms of temporal and parietal lobe stroke

dom parietal - problems with calc, agnosia (cant recognise objects), aphasia
non dom parietal - problems drawing, hemineglect
temporal - impaired memory, wernickes apahasia in dominant, selective memory,

6

how is the sleep cycle regualted

hypothalamus inhibits RAS for sleep. RAS activates thalamus to wake up

7

explain the process behind decerebrate posturing

corticospinal inhibits reticulo spinal but damage to corticospinal results in decerebrate prosturing.

8

explain process behind decorticate posturing

damage to corticospinal results in no inhibition. ruberospinal flexes upper limbs and reticulospinal extends lower.

9

explain how acetyl coa makes colesterol or ketone bodies

amount of insulin decides. With insulin goes to cholesterol. without goes to ketone bodies.

10

what is hematocrit

% of RBCs in blood

11

what is aphonia, aphasia, disarthria

aphasia - language disorder
aphonia - no voice
disarthria - unclear articulation
aphonia and disarthria are types of aphasia

12

commonest way for infection to spread to retropharyngeal space

teeth infection

13

pattern of inheritance of familial hypercholesterolemia

auto dominant

14

inflammatory markers in blood

CRP, WBCs

15

what layer is atheromas formed in

tunica intima

16

name a ketone body

beta-hydroxybuyrate

17

what would u see in a blood test indicating neural tube dysfunction

increased alpha-fetoprotein

18

what does RA and OA affet

RA - synovial membrane - thickens and inflames
OA - articular hyaline cartilage. Sclerosis and osteophytes

19

how does anemia affect blood flow

flow murmur

20

ions in vomit. is gastric juice hypertonic, isotonic or hypotonic.

H, cl, K
gastric juice is hypertonic

21

symptoms of chronic uncontrolled asthma

reduced growth and chest wall deformities

22

histology of acute and chronic asthma

acute - oedema, mucus hypersecertion, bronchspasm
chronic - SM hypertrophy, mucus gland hyperplasia

23

where does oesophagus constrict

at start, through diaphragm, and at aortic arch

24

what is achalasia

lower oesophageal SM not relaxing

25

how test for hematuria

dip stick, microscopy urin

26

swellings in testes

hematocoele, varicocoele, hydrocoele, spermatocoele, torsion

27

how test testicular swelling

USS, MRI

28

hhistology of malignancy

poor differentiation, pleimorphic, increased mitotic figures

29

what is basal ganglia made of and functions

made of striatum and globus pallidus
functions to determine amplitude and velocity of movement and inhibit unwatned movements

30

how test female ovulation

plasma prog at day 21

31

what could pleuritic chest pain be

pneumonia, PE, TB, pneumothorax

32

cofactors of erythropoiesis

b12 and folate

33

antenatal tests

USS, dipstick (protein for pre eclampsia), BP, sugars (gestational diabetes), bloods (iron and folate)

34

clinical signs of hypertension

headaches, blurred vision, epistaxis

35

what is a pseudocyst and where would it happen

no epithelial cells
happens due to acute pancreatitis in lesser sac

36

enzyme that conjugates bilirub

glucuronyl transferase

37

signs of increased ICP

vomiting, altered consciousness, eye palsies (abducens), papilloedema

38

condition of CSF coming out of ear

CSF otorrhoea

39

nerves of femoral, sciatic and obturator

femoral and obturator - L2-L4
sciatic - L5-S3

40

why is shoulder joint not likely to be dislocated superiorly

acromioclavicular joint in way

41

signs of HF

increased JVP, oedema, pulmonary crackles, peripheral cyanosis

42

how would you test blood flow through heart

echocardiogram

43

area of bladder prone to stretching

trigone of bladder

44

what is intention to treat analysis. why is it gud

everyone included if they adhered or dropped out. mirrors actual clinical practice

45

receptors that vasodilate arteries

skeletal and coronary - b1, NA
everywhere else - NA acts on alpha1

46

clinical signs of hyperthyroidism

hyperreflexia, tachycardia

47

how does cell recognise viral infection and clear it

MHC1 recognised by CD8 cells

48

fibrocytstic changes in breast

fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, cysts

49

what damaged in ulcer of posterior wall of stomach

splenic artery, pancreas

50

what happens to femur in dislocation and fracture and why

dislocation - medial rotation due to gluteal pull
fracture - external rotation due to illiopsoas pull

51

what is the supinator reflex nerves

c5-6

52

how measure true and apparent leg length

true - greater trochanter to medial malleolus
apparent - ASIS to medial malleolus

53

what substances induce pyrexia and where do they act

TNF-alpha and IL-1 on hypothalamus

54

what is a fibroid

benign tumour of uterine SM

55

daily expenditure of 80kg male

12kJ

56

inflammatory process mediators

histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane a2

57

causes of polyhydriamnos

duodenal atresia, oesophageal atresia

58

how is amniotic fluid produced in early and late stage

early - transudate across fetal skin and amnion
late - fetal urine in the kidneys

59

blood supply of thalamus, internal capsule, pons, hypothalamus, medulla

thalamus - post cerebral
internal capsule - mid cerebral
pons - pontine arteries
hypothalamus - anterior and posterior cerebral
medulla - ant spinal. post inf cerebellum

60

risk factors of breast cancer

breast feeding (protective), HRT/COCP, menopause age

61

give examples of apocrine and holocrine sweat gland

apocrine - arm pits, groin sweat glands. Mammory glands
holocrine - sebaceous glands (hair), tarsal glands

62

when is tamiflu affective

within 48 hrs of symptoms appearing

63

what is status asthmaticus

64

what is granuloma and granulation tissue

granuloma - foreign body walled off
granulation tissue - healing

65

what does proline and lysine do to collagen

increase strength and stability

66

what is histological features of type 1 and 2 muscle fibres

type 1 - slow, thinner diameter, redder (myoglobin), fatigue resistant, aerobic (more mitochondria??)

67

what is gene penetrance

how likely gene will manifest itself

68

give cancer metastases to bone, liver, brain, lungs

lungs - Real Hardcore Cancers Fill Both My lungs - RCC, HCC, Choriocarcinoma, Follicular thyroid, breast, melanoma

Brain - Cancer: Some Love Killing Brain Glia - Skin, lungs, Kidneys, breast, GI

Bone - PB-KTL - prostate, breast, kidney, thyroid, lung

Liver - Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver - colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, lung

69

how carbimazole works

prevents iodinisation of thyroglobulin

70

what happens to lactate

to glucose by liver
or to pyruvate by muscle, heart, brain

71

Give SAN and cardiac AP

SAN - funny current, calcium in, potassium out

cardiac - Na in, K+ and Cl out, calcium in and K out, K out.

72

commonest fracture area of scaphoid

waist of scaphoid

73

what parts of brachial plexus under clavicle

branches and cord

74

causes of aortic stenosis

age related calcification, rheumatic fever

75

Drug for diarrhoea and MoA?

Loperamide - opioid