Exam Two - PPT2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam Two - PPT2 Deck (92):
1

Lumbar Gravity Line is creates by locating the center of _____ and dropping a line.

L3 body

2

If the Lumbar Gravitational Line passes 1 cm in front of the tip of the sacrum to 1 cm posterior to tip of the sacrum, it is __________

Normal

3

If the Lumbar Gravitational Line falls forward of the sacrum, there is ________ _______ _________

Anterior weight bearing (discs)

4

If the Lumbar Gravitational Line falls behind, the lumbar spine has _________ __________ ___________.

Posterior weight bearing (Facets)

5

Predental space should be up to _______ in adults

3mm

6

Predental Space should be up to _______ in children

5mm

7

Increased distance of Predental Space may indicate...

Fracture of odontoid to transverse ligament injury

8

Atlas Dens Interval (ADI)

AKA

Predental Space

9

Cervical Gravitational Line is created by locating the center of the tip of the __________ __________, then dropping it.

Odontoid Process

10

Cervical Gravitational Line is normal if the line goes through ___________

Any part of the body of C-7 vertebra

11

Risser Sign AKA

Iliac Epiphysis Sign

Apophysis Sign

12

Risser Sign checks for what?

Bone maturity (maturation)

13

Crest of Ilium begins maturing at the age of ______

About 16

14

Crest of the ilium maturation is complete in _____ years

Average 2 years

7months - 3.5 years

15

The whiter the part on the on the X-ray, the thicker or denser the structure is refered to as __________

Radiopague

16

The darker the part on the object, the less dense it is and is known as ___________

Radiolucent

17

The 5 densities seen on X-rays
1) ______ -blackish
2) ______-Dark gray
3)_____ light gray
4) _____Whitish
5)_____ bright white

1)Air
2)fat
3) water
4) bone
5) metal

18

The long upright pyramid is AKA _________, which extends from the tip of the odontoid process of C-2 to the inferior aspect of the vertebral body of L-5

1st general pyramid

19

The short inverted pyramid AKA _____ extends from the base of the sacrum to the tip of the coccyx

2nd general pyramid

20

Inside the first general pyramid there are ______ smaller pyramids

Three

21

What are the three smaller pyramids that are inside the first general pyramid?

Upright pyramid- at tip of odontoid process to the bottom of T-1
Inverted pyramid- bottom of T-1 to the bottom of L-5
Upright pyramid- bottom of T-5 to the bottom of L-5

22

Together there are _____ total pyramids. _____ General and the ______ smaller ones

5; 2; 3

23

A _____ is a normal anterior to posterior bending of the spinal column

Curve

24

The foot may ______ or ______. This will affect the knees, hips and spine

Pronate (turn out) or Supinate (turn in)

25

What are the two types of curves in the spine?

Anterior and posterior curves

26

_______ curve that apexes or has the convexity toward the anterior (concavity toward the back)

Anterior curve

27

________ curve that apexes or has the convexity toward the posterior (concavity faces front)

Posterior curve

28

Anterior curves are AKA _________ curves
Posterior curves are AKA _________ curves

Lordotic curves (cervical and lumbar)
Kyphotic curves (Thoracic, sacral, coccyx)

29

At birth, the body has _____ curve

1 posterior C-shaped primary curve

30

How do the secondary curves develop in the child?

Secondary curves develop as the child begins to move its body against gravity

31

When does the cervical curve (first secondary curve) begin to develop?

3-4 days

32

When is the child able to hold its head upright because the cervical curve is basically developed?

3-4 months

33

What are the two sagittal plane curves?

Primary curves
Secondary curves

34

At birth, 1 C-shaped primary posterior curve is present from the _____ to the ______

Head to the coccyx

35

What what age doe the lumbar curve begin and when is it fully formed?

Begins at 6-9 months
Formed by 10-18 months

36

The first lordotic/ secondary curve is the cervical curve that extends from ______ to ________

Tip of the odontoid process of C-2 to the base of T-2

37

What is the normal disc space on an x-ray at the disc space?

35-45 degrees

38

If the curve is less than 35 degrees in the =cervical spine, it is called

Hypolordotic

39

If the cervical curve is more than45 degrees then it is considered

Hyperlordotic

40

The second secondary curve is the ______ curve and that does it extend from?

Lumbar curve
It extends from the base of T-12 to the base of the last lumbar

41

What is the normal curve considered to be when measures from top of L-1 tot he top of the sacrum?

50 and 60 degrees

42

When unable to see S-1 use L-1 to L-5. What is the degrees for a normal lumbar curve when measuring from L-1 to L-5

35-45 degrees

43

Between the ages of _____ and ______ the lumbar vertebrae grow 2 times faster than the rest of the spine

2 and 16

44

The thoracic curve is a ______ curve and part of the original ______ curve

Kyphotic; primary

45

What is the length of the thoracic curve?

It extends between T2 and T12 vertebral segments and apexes at the disc space between T 6 and T7 motor unit

46

The normal kyphotic curve is between _____ and ____ degrees with an average of _______

20 and 40; 30

47

What should you see when looking form behind the patient or from the side?

Concavity, convexity, concavity, convexity

48

What are curvatures?

Adaptive bendings of the spine

49

Curvatures involve how many segments?

3 or more segments

50

What are the curvatures?

Kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis

51

What is a kyphosis (hunchback)?

An exaggerated thoracic curvature

52

What is a lordosis (swayback)?

An exaggerated lumbar curvature

53

Define kyphosis

Abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side

54

What is anklyosing spondylitis?

Progressive spinal flexion deformities (may progress to a chin-on chin deformity

55

Lateral curvature of the spine of greater than 10 degrees is known as _______

Scoliosis

56

What is idiopathic scoliosis?

A lateral deviation and rotation of the spine without an identifiable cause

57

what does scoliosis mean?

Curvature

58

What type of X-ray can identify if the patient has scoliosis?

A-P X ray

59

Scoliosis is named for the direction that the curvature _________

Convexes (apexes)

60

If the scoliosis convexes to the left then is is referred to ________
If the scoliosis convexes to the right then it is referred to as _______

Levoscoliosis
Dextroscoliosis

61

What is rotatory scoliosis?

Most scoliosis curvature have an element of rotation in them known as rotatory scoliosis

62

When naming scoliosis what are the steps?

1) name the area that the scoliosis is located in (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, etc)
2) name the side of the curvature (dextro or Levi)
3) add rotatory if there is some rotation

63

The medial profession begins to call a lateral curvature scoliosis at _______ degrees

10

64

The curvature usually begins in the ________ then proceeds _____ the spine at various stages

Lower back; up

65

What are the 3 major classifications of scoliosis?

Structural
Nonstructural
Transient structural

66

What is the most common form of scoliosis and affects 70% of all patients who have scoliosis?

Idiopathic scoliosis

67

What does idiopathic mean?

Unknown cause

68

Non structural scoliosis is called ___________ scoliosis

Physiological scoliosis (functional)

69

Structural scoliosis is called _________ scoliosis

Pathological

70

How can you tell the difference bwteeen physiological scoliosis and pathological scoliosis

Adams sign

71

Most idiopathic scoliosis were due to decrease in what?

Foundation support (subluxation)

72

What are the two ways X rays for scoliosis are measured by?

COBBs angle or Riser-Ferguson measurement

73

Explain the Cobb method of angle measurement

1) identify the upper and lower end vertebrae
2) draw lines extending along the vertebral borders
3) Measure Cobb Angle directly or geometrically

74

When do the epiphyseal plates fuse?

Between ages 16-20

75

In scoliosis, the muscle contracture is on the side of the ________ and the weak muscles are on the side of the ________ resembling a bow

Concavity
Convexity

76

What are the 3 types of idiopathic scoliosis?

Infantile, juvenile, and adolescent

77

In idiopathic scoliosis:
-infantile begins ________
Juvenile begins _______
Adolescent begins ______

Before age 3
Begins between ages of 3 and 10
Begins after the age of 10 to maturity

78

With _____ curves there are more frequent CNS problems

Left

**** LEFT IS NOT RIGHT

79

______ to _____ year olds grow the fastest and scoliosis gets worse

12-16

80

Are males or females more likely to have scoliosis?

Female

81

Do thinner or overweight people have more scoliosis?

Thinner

82

What a re the 3 body types?

Ectomorph: Tall. Thin (flower growth)
Endomorph: larger, thicker
Mesomorph: athletic build

83

A ______ brace used for non operative lumbar scoliosis management

Boston brace

84

What is the boston brace primarily used for?

Lower thoracic, thoracolumabr and lumbar curves

85

______ brace used for non operative treatment of thoracic and lumbar scoliosis

Lyon

86

What is the brace that is most commonly used for treatment of kyphotic conditions?

Milwaukee brace

87

What is the primary goal of the Milwaukee brace?

To stop progression of scoliosis

88

What is bone age?

Bone age = physiological age = age of maturity of the body

89

What is te chronological age in scoliosis?

14-15

90

How does one measure anterior or posterior slippage?

Georges line

91

The Risser sign looks are the crest of the ilium to obeserve bone maturity. What are the 5 grades of the Risser sign?

Grade 1: put to 25% complete
Grade2: 26-50% complete
Grade 3- 51% to 75%
Grade 4- 76 to 100%
Grade 5- where fusion is completed and total cessation of growth

92

The prudential space should be no more than ____ mm in adults and _____ mm in children

3mm in adults and 5 mm in children