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Flashcards in Extinction Deck (20)
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1

globally extinct

extinct in the wild across its range

2

ecologically extinct

persists at such reduced numbers that its effects on the other species in its community are negligible

3

human-induced extinctions - 3 examples (past)

1 megafauna of Australia and North & South America - 74-86% extinction
2 pacific islands (4000-1000yrs before present) - 2000 species of birds extinct
3 European colonisation of the Pacific (since 1778) - Hawaii

4

greatest extinction

permian-triassic extinction
95% of marine life
50% of taxa

5

The cookie-cutter model

- removing habitat from particular areas has greater impact than other habitats
are there hotspots for extinction?
- areas with higher concentration of endemic species

6

human-induced extinctions - 2 examples (present)

Madagascar ~20% of global extinctions
Singapore ~26% already lost, ~ 76% loss predicted with current habitat loss (time lag)

7

endemism

found naturally in only one place

8

vulnerability to extinction factor - hunting (with example)

Tasmanian Tiger - extinct 1935
(hunted sheep)

9

vulnerability to extinction factor - narrow geographical range (with example)

Ivory-billed woodpecker [Southeastern United States]
- very small and limited distribution

10

vulnerability to extinction factor - one or only a few populations (with example)

Bannerman's turaco [Cameroon]
- montane (mountain) forests
lots of lower forest cleared = fragmented habitat

11

vulnerability to extinction factor - small population

vulnerability to demographic & environmental variation, reduced genetic variability and natural disasters

12

vulnerability to extinction factor - animals with a large home range (with example)

Bengal Tiger
- habitat fragmentation -> lower genetic diversity...

13

vulnerability to extinction factor - animals with large bodies (with example)

Pleistocene megafauna extinctions - larger animals hunted first .

14

vulnerability to extinction factor - poor at dispersing (with example)

Door mouse/deer
E.g. roads divide populations
E.g. wildlife corridors not effective as animals may not know where they are/ predator funnel

15

vulnerability to extinction factor - seasonal migrants (with example)

Nightingale
- being caught and eaten on Malta and Cyprus
- many birds do not survive migration

16

vulnerability to extinction factor - specialised niche requirements (with example)

.Large blue butterfly [UK]
- needs lot of Thyme

17

vulnerability to extinction factor - no previous contact with people (with example)

Dodo [Mauritius]
ship rats
no fear of humans

18

vulnerability to extinction factor - close relative that has gone extinct

relative of Dodo

19

vulnerability to extinction factor - requires pristine, undisturbed environments

Freshwater pearl
- last for hundreds on years

20

vulnerability to extinction factor - form aggregation

passenger pigeon (easier to shoot (+hunting))