Female Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology Deck (58)
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1

What does the vulva refer to?

refers to all these external structures   Vaginal orifice influenced by childbirth, exposing anterior vaginal wall

 

2

1. What artery supplies the the pelvic arterial flow?

2. And what artery branches from this?

1. Aorta-common iliac—external and internal iliac

2. Uterine  artery as branch of internal iliac or hypogastric

3

What form the fallopian tubes and then fuse caudally to form uterus, cervix and upper vagina? 2

 

1. Mullerian or

2. paramesonephric ducts

4

1. What is a gartner's duct cyst?

2. What are the sites for this? 3

1. A Gartner's duct cyst (sometimes incorrectly referred to as vaginal inclusion cyst) is a benign vaginal cystic lesion that arises from the vestigial remnant of a mesonephric duct or Gartner's duct.

 

2. 

-epoophoron

-Cervix

-Vagina

5

DES  (Diethylstilbesterol)

1. Later associated with uterine anomalies which caused what? 2
2. Exposed sons have increased risk of what? 3

3. Mothers have modest increase risk of what?

 

1. 

-increased pregnancy complications and infertility as well as

-increased risk of cervical and breast cancer

 

2. 

-cryptorchidism,

-hypogonadism and

-epidiymal cysts

3. breast cancer

6

1. DES associated with what of vagina in DES exposed daughters in 1971 and use stopped in US?

 

Use continued in some other countries until early 1980’s. (Youngest exposed in US about 44 yo now.) Increase also in uterine anomalies (Tshaped uterus, hypoplastic uterus and uterine adhesions created increase infertility, ectopic preg and early preg loss. These daughters need yearly exams with cervical and 4 quadrant vaginal pap  as well as careful vaginal palpation to screen for clear cell carcinoma. Mothers who took DES have mild-moderate increase risk of breast cancer (17%). Third generation effects equivocal.

 

1. clear cell carcinoma

7

What do the following pelvic types describe:

1. Gynecoid?

2. Platypelloid?

3. Android?

4. Anthropoid?

1. Round

2. Oval

3. Wedge

4. Oval-long

8

Ovulation requires a what?

surge of prostaglandin synthesis within the follicle

9

1. Hypothalamus loctaed where?

2. Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal Circulation is the blood supply where?

1. Located at base of brain, just above junction of optic nerves

 

2. The blood supply of anterior pituitary originates in the hypothalamus

There are no direct nerve connections

10

State what the following are:

1. GnRH?

2. TRH?

3. SRIF?

4. CRF?

5. PIF?

1.  – gonadotropin-releasing hormone

2. – thyrotropin-releasing hormone

3.  – somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (somatostatin or growth hormone inhibiting-hormone)

4. – corticotropin-releasing factor

5.  – prolactin release-inhibiting factor = dopamine

11

Anterior pituitary (Adenohypohysis)

1. Derived from what?

2. Produces how many different hormones?

Posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

1. Derived from what?

2. Transports what? 2

 

Anterior pituitary (Adenohypohysis)

1. Derived from ectoderm

2. Different cell types that produce 6 different hormones 

 

Posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

1. Derived from neural tissue  

2. Transports oxytocin and vasopressin


 

12

Anterior Pituitary- Adenohypophysis

What are the 6 hormones that are released by this?

1. FSH – follicle stimulating hormone – gonadotrophs

2. LH – luteinizing hormone – gonadotrophs

3. TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone – thyrotrophs

4. Prolactin – lactotrophs

5. GH – growth hormone

6. ACTH – adenocorticotrophic hormone – MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone – Addison’s disease)


 

13

1. Which hormones are released by Hypothalamic Neurohormone? 5

 

 

 

1. GnRH

2. TRH

3. SRIF

4. CRF

5. PIF  (Dopamine)

14

What do the following signal for the anterior pit to release?

1. GnRH?

2. TRH?

3. SRIF?

4. CRF?

5. PIF  (Dopamine)?

 

1.

-FSH

-LH

2. TSH

3. GH

4.

-ACTH

-MSH

5. Prolactin

15

What are the target organs for the following hormones? 

1. FSH and LH?

2. TSH?

3. GH?

4. ACTH and MSH?

5. Prolactin?

 1. Ovaries

2. Thyroid

3. Skeletal system

4. Adrenals

5. Breasts

16

Pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the (arcuate nucleus) hypothalamus

1. Stimulated by what?

2. Inhibited by what?

3. Influenced by what?

4. Low pulse frequency triggers what?

5. High pulse frequency triggers what?

1. Stimulated by norepinephrine

2. Inhibited by dopamine (PIF)

3. Influenced by endogenous opiods

4. Low pulse frequency triggers FSH

5. High pulse frequency triggers LH

 

17

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis

1. GnRH reaches the anterior pituitary by what?
2. and stimulates secretion of what?

1. hypothalamic-pituitary portal vascular system

2. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone)

18

LH

1. First, low levels stimulate what and from where?

2. These androgens are converted to ________ in the granulosa cells

FSH

3. Stimulates secretion of what 2 from what?


 

1. secretion of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) from the theca cells.

2. ESTROGENS

3. ESTROGENS (estradiol and estrone) by granulosa cells of ovarian follicles

19

Estrogen and LH: Ovulation

1. Initially, estrogen creates a negative feedback to the pituitary to__________ LH and FSH?


2. In late follicular phase, peak estradiol levels from the dominant follicle trigger what?

1. decrease

2. a midcycle surge of LH needed for ovulation and preparing the ovary to make progesterone

20

Progesterone

1. With ovulation, the dominant follicle becomes a progesterone-secreting cyst called the what?

2. and the ________ of menstrual cycle begins.

 

1. corpus luteum

2. luteal phase

21

Progesterone:

1. Negative feedback on pituitary secretion of LH and FSH causes what?


 

1. decreasing E and P to be made in corpus luteum

22

Progesterone

1. If no conception, the lifespan of the corpus luteum is ____days.

2. Progesterone levels ____?

3. _______ period triggered

4. Negative feedback for FSH secretion stops and FSH levels start to do what?


 

1. 9-11

2. fall

3. Menstrual

4. to rise before onset of menses

23

Progesterone:

If implantation occurs:

What from the zygote sustains the corpus luteum for 6-7 weeks until the placenta takes over?

HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

24

Describe the menstural cycle

25

DES causes what kind of shape uterus?

T shaped

26

FOLLICULAR PHASE

1. AKA?

2. Which hormone dominates?

3. Development of what?

4. Culminates with what event?

5. How big will the dominant follicle be?

1. (Proliferative)

2. Estrogen Dominates

3. Development of Mature Follicle

4. Culminates with LH surge preceding ovulation

5. 20-25 mm in size

27

LUTEAL PHASE

1. aka?

2. Requires what?

3. What hormone is dominant?

4. Elevated what?

5. What is the main event in this phase?

1. (Secretory)

2. REQUIRES THAT OVULATION HAS OCCURRED

3. PROGESTERONE DOMINANT

4. ELEVATED BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE

5. FURTHER PREPARES UTERINE LINING (ENDOMETRIUM) TO RECEIVE FERTILIZED EGG

 

28

Luteal Phase

1. What confirms ovulation?

2. What does this look like on the corpus luteum?

3. Progesterone changes glandular structure. How?

4. ______ mm EMS

 

1. Following dominant follicle to CL confirms ovulation

2. Irregular, thin walled with internal echoes

3. (increased length and tortuosity)

4. 10-14

29

Describe the functions of estrogen in the following organs:

1. Breast?

2. Endometrium?

3. Cervix?

4. Vagina? 2

5. Bone?

 

1. pubertal development

2. stimulates  cell growth (proliferative phase)

3. stimulates abundant, clear mucus at mid cycle

4. 

-growth and maturation of epithelium

-Lubrication

5. helps to maintain density. Estrogen receptors in osteoblasts

 

30

Progesterone

1. __________ effects at level of hypothalamus

2. Increase of basal body temperature (BBT) by how much?

3. Cervical mucus changes how? 2

4. Breasts: stimulation of what contributes to fullness and tenderness? 3

5. Fallopian tubes: affected by progesterone how? 2

1. Thermogenic

2. 0.5-1.0 F

3. thickens and decreases in amount

4. 

-ducts,

-nipple and

-areola

5. 

-decreases mucus and

-causes relaxation to speed transport of ovum